P2 Receptors and Platelet Activation
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plays a crucial role in hemostasis and thrombosis by activating platelets. In platelets, the classical P2T receptor is now resolved into three P2 receptor subtypes: the P2Y1, the P2Y12, and the P2X1 receptors. Both pharmacological and molecular biological approaches have confirmed the role of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors in the ADP-induced platelet fibrinogen receptor activation. The P2Y1 and the P2X1 receptors independently contribute to platelet shape change. Whereas the P2Y12 receptor mediates the potentiation of dense granule release reaction, both the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors play an important role in the ADP-induced phospholipase A2 activation. The signaling events downstream of these receptors leading to the physiological effects remain elusive, and they are yet to be delineated.