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Volume 7, Pages 1768-1776
Review Article

Traumatic Brain Injury and Delayed Sequelae: A Review - Traumatic Brain Injury and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion) are Precursors to Later-Onset Brain Disorders, Including Early-Onset Dementia

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
2Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Canada

Received 12 August 2007; Revised 23 August 2007; Accepted 13 September 2007

Academic Editor: Neal R. Swerdlow

Copyright © 2007 Michael Kiraly and Stephen J. Kiraly.


Brain injuries are too common. Most people are unaware of the incidence of and horrendous consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Research and the advent of sophisticated imaging have led to progression in the understanding of brain pathophysiology following TBI. Seminal evidence from animal and human experiments demonstrate links between TBI and the subsequent onset of premature, psychiatric syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Objectives of this summary are, therefore, to instill appreciation regarding the importance of brain injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, and to increase awareness regarding the long-term delayed consequences following TBI.