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Volume 8, Pages 384-393
Research Article

Cardiovascular Activities of of the bradykinin system

Department of Applied Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait

Received 30 October 2007; Revised 18 March 2008; Accepted 26 March 2008

Academic Editor: Peter Little

Copyright © 2008 Jagdish N.¬†Sharma.


All the components of the kallikrein-kinin system are located in the cardiac muscle andits deficiency may lead to cardiac dysfunction. In recent years, numerous observationsobtained from clinical and experimental models of diabetes, hypertension, cardiacfailure, ischemia, myocardial infarction, and left ventricular hypertrophy have suggestedthat the reduced activity of the local kallikrein-kinin system may be instrumental for theinduction of cardiovascular-related diseases. The cardioprotective property of theangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is primarily mediated via a kinin-releasingpathway, which may cause regression of the left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensivesituations. The ability of kallikrein gene delivery to produce a wide spectrum of beneficialeffects makes it a promising candidate in treating hypertension and cardiovascular andrenal diseases. In addition, stable kinin agonists may also be available in the future astherapeutic agents for cardiovascular and renal disorders. However, there are alsopossibilities of adverse effects that may be caused by these compounds.