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Volume 11, Pages 894-906
Review Article

Proximal Hypospadias

1Division of Urology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
2Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Minnesota Amplatz Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA
3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Received 20 December 2010; Accepted 3 March 2011

Academic Editor: Jeffrey Palmer

Copyright © 2011 Kate H. Kraft et al.


Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications.