Table 2: The 20 drug-education units in the P.A.T.H.S. Extension Phase.

Unit codeUnitUnit aimsLearning targets

AD1.1Choosing a Better WayTo enable students to understand that emotions may affect our ability to solve problems, and thus lead to different consequences(1) To understand the relationship between coping methods and consequences
(2) To analyze the influences of different coping methods

AD1.2Emotion, Your Name Is …To help students understand their emotions, identify different emotional states caused by different conditions, and realize that individuals in certain emotional states are easily influenced by drugs(1) To enhance the ability to articulate and identify emotions through games.
(2) To identify various emotional states and their causes

AD1.3Emotional Survival GuideTo understand that choosing a smarter coping method can make life better(1) To explore different coping methods
(2) To identify the benefits and drawbacks of different coping methods
(3) To analyze the use of drugs as a coping method

AD1.4Facts Are FactsTo understand that clarifying facts is the first step of critical thinking(1) To understand that “clarifying facts” is the base of critical thinking and can help us make reasonable conclusions and take reasonable actions
(2) To identify facts about drugs and analyze the possible harm caused

AD1.5At Sixes and SevensTo encourage students when they face peer pressure(1) To understand that people around us will try to influence our thinking, attitudes, and behaviors through different techniques
(2) To be aware of the necessity of using critical thinking when facing the above situations

AD1.6Find a Good FriendTo enhance students’ understanding of their own personality and to investigate the effect of personality on interpersonal relationships(1) To learn about four major types of personality
(2) To understand the effects of personality on interpersonal relationships and review their own personality and individual behavior (including illegal behavior)

AD1.7Say No to Undesirable Friends(1) To show students how to recognize desirable friends from undesirable ones and encourage them to choose the right friends and establish a healthy relationship(1) To identify the determinants for desirable and undesirable friends
(2) To show students the required skills to resist temptation(2) To practice refusal principles and skills

AD1.8What Should I Do?To explore vital areas in decision making in order to be able to make positive decisions in daily lifeTo learn that one should consider and analyze others’ opinions and the consequences of making a choice

AD2.1Is It Okay?To let students understand and encourage students to observe the clear, positive, healthy, and ethical standards in the community(1) To learn that society holds different standards towards different people/issues
(2) To understand that the use of psychotropic drugs is inconsistent with standards of social behavior

AD2.2Is It Right or Wrong to Follow the Trend?To distinguish the expectations of the society towards conforming behaviors(1) To understand that the society expects people with different ages and identities adopt appropriate conforming behaviors
(2) To understand the fact that conforming behaviors can be good or bad
(3) To understand the importance of not following trends blindly but making rational choices

AD2.3What Are Frustrations?To reconstruct students’ awareness of what frustrations are and to let them understand how to learn from the experience of frustrations(1) To understand how to face failures
(2) To find out the learning points from the experience of frustrations

AD2.4General’s ChoiceTo learn that we should not accept any temptations when we are facing difficulties just to obtain excitement but creating greater problems for the future(1) To understand the luring effects of temptations and how to reject them
(2) To stay away from short-term happiness that comes from avoidance of adversity

AD2.5Think Twice!To enhance students’ competence in self-determination by sharpening their decision-making skills(1) To sharpen decision-making skills
(2) To handle peer pressure by making use of decision-making skills
(3) To understand that each person should be responsible for his/her decisions and accept the consequences

AD2.6I Am Precious!To rediscover self-worth, as a means of resisting the temptation to take drugs(1) To understand that everyone is unique
(2) To understand that each person can overcome the past and rediscover their self-worth and direction in life
(3) To discover one’s strengths and uniqueness

AD3.1 Opium-
Trade-War
To reflect on how we can contribute to a society that is being harmed(1) To know the stories of some “nobodies” in Chinese history and cultivate our sense of responsibility when facing social problems today
(2) To think about our own roles when the community is being harmed

AD3.2Encountering a FriendTo facilitate students’ empathetic understanding of others and to encourage them to help themselves and others when there are problems caused by emotions(1) To empathize with others’ emotions and realize those emotions may be ways of adapting to life
(2) To support those facing emotional problems, in order to reduce their need for drugs

AD3.3Believe It or NotTo facilitate students use of critical thinking, realize there are various causes of deviant behavior, and help students enhance their empathy for parents(1) To enhance critical-thinking abilities
(2) To reflect parents’ role and limitations in improving teenagers’ deviant behavior, in order to empathize with parents

AD3.4This Is My BadgeTo assist students to establish positive and feasible objectives of life in order to understand that they have ability to face challenges and enrich their life(1) To consider which characteristics can let them better face challenges in life and not to solve problems by abusing drugs
(2) To enhance students confidence and expectation in nurturing their good quality through creative activities

AD3.5The New Biography of SisyphusTo cultivate the ability to face and handle miseries and adversities(1) To explore how to face miseries and adversities
(2) To understand that our mind affects our behavior; positive thinking may help us figure out positive and effective ways to solve our problems

AD3.6A U-Turn of LifeTo understand that there is always way out in adversities. Do not use negative ways to “solve” problems at times of difficultiesTo understand that every person has choices and is able to find positive solutions at times of difficulties