Table 1: K-Means Cluster Analysis: patients were divided into three groups according to WHO-DAS II and IWQoL-Lite scores.

ClusterF
ABC

WHO-DAS II8.6 (6.1–11.1)22.7 (19.6–25.9)47 (42.3–51.8)110.6*
IWQoL-Lite59 (55–62)87 (84–90)110 (104–117)161.1*

Note. For each group, cluster centroids and 95% confidence interval are reported; * 𝑃 < . 0 0 1 . Bonferroni post hoc test was significant for each pair, both for WHO-DAS II and IWQoL-Lite total scores. Cluster A: 43 cases, lower disability, and HRQoL reduction; Cluster B: 50 cases, intermediate disability, and HRQoL reduction; Cluster C: 24 cases, higher disability, and HRQoL reduction.