Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 392734, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/392734
Research Article

A Neutral Risk on the Development of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus (NODM) in Taiwanese Patients with Dyslipidaemia Treated with Fibrates

1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
2Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
3Department of Health Service Administration, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
5Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan

Received 7 May 2012; Accepted 2 July 2012

Academic Editors: E. Acquas, Z. Gao, and L. Virág

Copyright © 2012 Chien-Ying Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Robins, “PPARα ligands and clinical trials: cardiovascular risk reduction with fibrates,” Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 195–201, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Baigent, L. Blackwell, and J. Emberson, “Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9753, pp. 1670–1681, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Taylor, K. Ward, T. H. Moore et al., “Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1, Article ID CD004816, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Sattar, D. Preiss, and H. M. Murray, “Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9716, pp. 735–742, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. S. Sever, B. Dahlöf, N. R. Poulter et al., “Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9364, pp. 1149–1158, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group, “MRC/BHF Heart Protection study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9326, pp. 7–22, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Kjekshus, E. Apetrei, V. Barrios et al., “Rosuvastatin in older patients with systolic heart failure,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 22, pp. 2248–2261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. M. Ridker, E. Danielson, F. A. H. Fonseca et al., “Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 21, pp. 2195–2207, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. J. Freeman, J. Norrie, N. Sattar et al., “Pravastatin and the development of diabetes mellitus: evidence for a protective treatment effect in the west of Scotland coronary prevention study,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 357–362, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Keech, D. Colquhoun, J. Best et al., “Secondary prevention of cardiovascular events with long-term pravastatin in patients with diabetes of impaired fasting glucose: results from the LIPID trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2713–2721, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. M. Forman, J. Chen, and R. M. Evans, “Hypolipidemic drugs, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 4312–4317, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. A. Kliewer, S. S. Sundseth, S. A. Jones et al., “Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 4318–4323, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Fazio and M. F. Linton, “The role of fibrates in managing hyperlipidemia: mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 148–157, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Duez, B. Lefebvre, P. Poulain et al., “Regulation of human ApoA-I by gemfibrozil and fenofibrate through selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulation,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 585–591, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Preiss, S. R. K. Seshasai, P. Welsh et al., “Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: a meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 24, pp. 2556–2564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. P. Berger, T. E. Akiyama, and P. T. Meinke, “PPARs: therapeutic targets for metabolic disease,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 244–251, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Lehrke and M. A. Lazar, “The many faces of PPARγ,” Cell, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 993–999, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Kersten, “Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and lipoprotein metabolism,” PPAR Research, Article ID 132960, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Dreyer, G. Krey, and H. Keller, “Control of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway by a novel family of nuclear hormone receptors,” Cell, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 879–887, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Zhu, K. Alvares, and Q. Huang, “Cloning of a new member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene family from mouse liver,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 36, pp. 26817–26820, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. R. Saltiel and J. M. Olefsky, “Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of insulin resistance and type II diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1661–1669, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Fujiwara, S. Yoshioka, and T. Yoshioka, “Characterization of new oral antidiabetic agent CS-045. Studies in KK and ob/ob mice and Zucker fatty rats,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1549–1558, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. A. Sarafidis, “Thiazolidinedione derivatives in diabetes and cardiovascular disease: an update,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 247–264, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Heald and M. A. Cawthorne, “Dual acting and Pan-PPAR activators as potential anti-diabetic therapies,” Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 203, pp. 35–51, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. X. Wen, J. S. Wang, and J. T. Backman, “Gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 2C9,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1359–1361, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. C. Adkins and D. Faulds, “Micronised fenofibrate: a review of its pharmacodynamic properties and clinical efficacy in the management of dyslipidaemia,” Drugs, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 615–633, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Prueksaritanont, K. M. Richards, and Y. Qiu, “Comparative effects of fibrates on drug metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Bruckert, J. L. De Gennes, and W. Malbecq, “Comparison of the efficacy of simvastatin and standard fibrate therapy in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 621–629, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. T. May, J. L. Anderson, and R. R. Pearson, “Comparison of effects of simvastatin alone versus fenofibrate alone versus simvastatin plus fenofibrate on lipoprotein subparticle profiles in diabetic patients with mixed dyslipidemia (from the Diabetes and Combined Lipid Therapy Regimen study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 486–489, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. T. Xavier, “Drug combinations: statins and fibrates,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 85, supplement 5, pp. 34–35, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus