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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 585791, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/585791
Research Article

Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Mumbai Zonal Centre, 89/B Dr. A.B. Road, Worli, Mumbai 400018, India

Received 14 October 2011; Accepted 25 December 2011

Academic Editor: Donald H. Stedman

Copyright © 2012 Indrani Gupta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Particulate Matter (PM10) has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%), traffic (20%), coal fired boiler (17%), nitrate (15%). Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%), motor vehicles (23%), marine aerosol and nitrate (19%), paved road dust (18%) compared to construction and natural dust (27%), motor vehicles and smelting work (25%), nitrate (16%) and biomass burning and paved road dust (15%) in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%), motor vehicles and smelting work (22%), Natural soil (19%), nitrate and oil burning (18%).