Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 596276, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/596276
Research Article

Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harmful Algal Flora in the Tropical Estuarine Complex of Goa, India

1Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India
2Department of Botany, Goa University, Taleigao, Goa 403004, India

Received 31 October 2011; Accepted 25 December 2011

Academic Editors: R. Bastida and M. Leaver

Copyright © 2012 Suraksha M. Pednekar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. M. Anderson and J. D. Garrison, “The ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 42, pp. 1009–1305, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. M. Hallegraeff, D. M. Anderson, and A. D. Cembella, Manual on Harmful Marine Micro Algae, UNESCO Publishing, 2003.
  3. R. A. Horner, D. L. Garison, and F. G. Plumely, “Harmful Algal blooms and red tide problems the on U.S. west coast,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 42, pp. 1076–1088, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Sahayak, R. Jyothibabu, K. J. Jayalakshmi et al., “Red tide of Noctiluca miliaris off south of Thiruvananthapuram subsequent to the “stench event” at the southern Kerala coast,” Current Science, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1472–1473, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. George, P. V. Narvekar et al., “Sever fish mortality associated with “red tide” observed in the sea off Cochin,” Current Science, vol. 75, pp. 543–544, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  6. V. P. Devassy and S. R. N. Shreekumar, “Discolouration of water and its effect on fisheries along the Goa coast,” Mahasagar Bulletin, vol. 20, pp. 121–128, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  7. I. Karunasagar, H. S. V. Gowda, M. Subburaj, M. N. Venugopal, and I. Karunasagar, “Out break of Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Mangalore west cost of India,” Current Science, vol. 53, pp. 247–249, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  8. I. B. K. Joseph, K. K. Philipose, and I. Karunasagar, “Another outbreak of PSP in India,” Harmful Algae News, vol. 16, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. N. Ramaiah, J. Paul, V. Fernandes et al., “The September 2004 stench off the southern Malabar coast - A consequence of holococcolithophore bloom,” Current Science, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 551–554, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Godhe, I. Karunasagar, I. Karunasagar, and B. Karlson, “Dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments from SW India,” Botanica Marina, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. M. D'Costa, A. Chandrashekar Anil, J. S. Patil, S. Hegde, M. S. D'Silva, and M. Chourasia, “Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 77–90, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. B. Padmakumar, M. G. Sanilkumar, and A. V. Saramma, “A "Red tide" caused by the diatom Coscinodiscus on the southwest coast of India,” Harmful Algae News letter, vol. 35, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  13. C. K. Tan, J. Ishizaka, S. Matsumura, F. M. Yusoff, and M. I. H. Mohamed, “Seasonal variability of SeaWiFS chlorophyll a in the Malacca Straits in relation to Asian monsoon,” Continental Shelf Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 168–178, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. H. Tilstone, F. G. Figueiras, and F. Fraga, “Upwelling-downwelling sequences in the generation of red tides in a coastal upwelling system,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 241–254, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. R. Shetye, “Propagation of tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries,” Sadhana, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 5–16, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. R. Shetye, D. Shankar, S. Neetu, K. Suprit, G. S. Michael, and P. Chandramohan, “The environment that conditions the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries,” in The Mandovi and Zuari Estuaries, Shetye S. R., Kumar D., and Shankar D., Eds., p. 3, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Alagarsamy, “Distribution and seasonal variation of trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 333–339, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. U. K. Pradhan and P. V. Shirodkar, “Assessment of the impact of developmental activites on estuarine environments of Mandovi and Zuari Rivers of Goa along the west coast of India,” in Proceedings of the International Conference in Ocean Engineering, (ICOE'09), IIT Madras, Chennai, India, 2009.
  19. B. Goldar and N. Banerjee, “Impact of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 117–130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. V. Maya, A. S. Melena, A. Rajesh et al., “Variation in some environmental characteristics including C and N stable isotopic composition of suspended organic matter in the Mandovi estuary,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 175, pp. 501–517, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. S. Sawant, L. Prabhudessai, and K. Venkat, “Eutrophication status of marine environment of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 127, no. 1–3, pp. 283–291, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. P. Devassy, P. M. A. Bhattathiri, and S. Z. Qasim, “Succession of organisms following Trichodesmium phenomenon,” Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, vol. 8, pp. 89–93, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. A. S. Alkawri and N. Ramaiah, “Spatio-temporal variability of dinoflagellate assemblages in different salinity regimes in the west coast of India,” Harmful Algae, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. IMD (India Meteorological Department), 2007-2008, http://www.imd.gov.in/.
  25. S. C. Strickland and T. R. Parson, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analyses, Bulletin of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1979.
  26. C. R. Tomas, Identifying Marine Phytoplankton, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  27. H. A. Rita, A Taxonomic Guide to Some Common Marine Phytoplankton, Biopress Ltd., England, UK, 2002.
  28. R. Subrahmanyan, “Studies on the phytoplankton of the west coast of India. Parts I and II,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences SOB, pp. 113–187, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. R. Clarke and R. M. Warwick, Changes in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK, 1994.
  30. S. Z. Qasim and R. S. Gupta, “Environmental characteristics of the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system in Goa,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 557–578, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Upadhyay and R. Sen Gupta, “The behaviour of aluminium in waters of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 261–276, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. N. de Sousa, “Effect of mining rejects on the nutrient chemistry of Mandovi estuary, Goa,” Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 355–359, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Nigam, R. Panchang, and P. Banerjee, “Foraminifera in surface sediments of Mandovi River estuary: indicators for mining pollution and high sea stand in Goa, India,” Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 853–859, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Antonio M., “Human interference along the cost of Goa,” Environmental Problems of Coastal Areas in India, pp. 145–171, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  35. P. M. Kessarkar, V. Purnachandra Rao, R. Shynu et al., “Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India,” Journal of Earth System Science, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 369–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Suprit and D. Shankar, “Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 643–657, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. M. Anderson, P. M. Glibert, and J. M. Burkholder, “Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: nutrient sources, composition, and consequences,” Estuaries, vol. 25, no. 4 B, pp. 704–726, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. W. Paerl, R. L. Dennis, and D. R. Whitall, “Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: implications for nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters,” Estuaries, vol. 25, no. 4 B, pp. 677–693, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. A. Mallin, M. R. McIver, H. A. Wells, D. C. Parsons, and V. L. Johnson, “Reversal of eutrophication following sewage treatment upgrades in the New River Estuary, North Carolina,” Estuaries, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 750–760, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. M. Glibert, S. Seitzinger, C. A. Heil et al., “The role of eutrophication in the global proliferation of harmful algal blooms. New perspectives and new approaches,” Oceanography, vol. 18, pp. 198–209, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. A. Glibert, “Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a complex global issue, examples from the Arabian seas including Kuwait bay, and an introduction to the global ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms (GEOHAB) programme,” International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 157–169, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. G. Verity, “Expansion of potentially harmful algal taxa in a Georgia Estuary (USA),” Harmful Algae, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 144–152, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Z. Qasim, P. M. A. Bhattathiri, and V. P. Devassy, “The influence of salinity on the rate of photosynthesis and abundance of some tropical phytoplankton,” Marine Biology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 200–206, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Naik, B. C. Acharya, and A. Mohapatra, “Seasonal variations of phytoplankton in Mahanadi estuary, east coast of India,” Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 184–190, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. P. Devassy and J. I. Goes, “Phytoplankton community structure and succession in a tropical estuarine complex (central west coast of India),” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 671–685, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. V. Dehadrai, “Changes in the environmental features of the Zuari and Mandovi estuaries in relation to tides,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Section B, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 68–80, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. J. Smayda, “Turbulence, watermass stratification and harmful algal blooms: an alternative view and frontal zones as "pelagic seed banks",” Harmful Algae, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 95–112, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. J. Smayda, “Adaptive ecology, growth strategies and the global bloom expansion of dinoflagellates,” Journal of Oceanography, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 281–294, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. J. Smayda and C. S. Reynolds, “Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly,” Journal of Sea Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 95–106, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Prakash and M. A. Rashid, “Influence of humic substances on the growth of marine phytoplankton: dinoflagelltes,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 13, pp. 598–606, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. E. Hair and C. R. Bassett, “Dissolved and particulate humic acids in an east coast estuary,” Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. A. Doblin, S. I. Blackburn, and G. M. Hallegraeff, “Growth and biomass stimulation of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham) by dissolved organic substances,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 236, no. 1, pp. 33–47, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. G. Sanilkumar, A. M. Thomas, S. Shyamkumar et al., “First report of Protoperidinium bloom from Indian waters,” Harmful Algae News letter, vol. 39, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  54. T. Yan, M.-J. Zou, and J.-Z. Zou, “A national report on harmful algal blooms in China,” PICES Scientific Report 23: 21-32, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  55. Y. Pan, D. V. S. Rao, K. H. Mann, R. G. Brown, and R. Pocklington, “Effects of silicate limitation on production of domoic acid, a neurotoxin, by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. I. Batch culture studies,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 225–233, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. H. Baek, S. Shimode, and T. Kikuchi, “Growth of dinoflagellates, Ceratium furca and Ceratium fusus in Sagami Bay, Japan: the role of temperature, light intensity and photoperiod,” Harmful Algae, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 163–173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. N. Ganapati and A. V. Raman, “Organic pollution & Skeletonema blooms in Visakhapatnam harbour,” Indian Journal of Marine Science, vol. 8, pp. 184–187, 1979. View at Google Scholar