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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 960219, 9 pages
Clinical Study

B Cell Responses to CpG Correlate with CXCL16 Expression Levels in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

Pediatrics Clinic and Institute of Molecular Medicine “A. Nocivelli”, University of Brescia, piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy

Received 3 October 2011; Accepted 2 November 2011

Academic Editors: A. A. Manfredi and M. Zouali

Copyright © 2012 Vassilios Lougaris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Broad Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signalling defects after CpG in vitro stimulation have been described in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CXCL16, a surface receptor, was recently shown to influence cell responses to CpG. We evaluated the expression and function of CXCL16 on B cells from healthy controls and CVID patients. We report that CXCL16 is normally expressed on B cells throughout peripheral maturation. Decreased B cell expression of CXCL16 was observed in a subgroup of CVID patients that correlated with defective in vitro responses to CpG (such as upregulation of CD69, CD86, AICDA, IL-6, and TLR9). Our data suggest that expression levels of a surface receptor, namely, CXCL16, correlate with B cell responses mediated by TLR9 in common variable immunodeficiency.