Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012, Article ID 978036, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/978036
Research Article

Availability, Use, and Cultivation of Support Networks as Predictors of the Well-Being of Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: A Panel Study

1Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong, Tatchee Avenue, Hong Kong
2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Received 31 October 2011; Accepted 17 December 2011

Academic Editor: David V. Espino

Copyright © 2012 Alice Ming Lin Chong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. F. Berkman, T. Glass, I. Brissette, and T. E. Seeman, “From social integration to health: durkheim in the new millennium,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 843–857, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Hedberg, Kin network size, structure, and social support, Ph.D. thesis, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2009, Dissertations & Theses: A&I. (Publication No. AAT 3369346).
  3. C. W. Lam and K. W. Boey, “The psychological well-being of the Chinese elderly living in old urban areas of Hong Kong: a social perspective,” Aging and Mental Health, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 162–166, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. T. Cheng, C. K. L. Lee, A. C. M. Chan, E. M. F. Leung, and J. J. Lee, “Social network types and subjective well-being in Chinese older adults,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 713–722, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. Chi and K. L. Chou, “Social support and depression among elderly Chinese people in Hong Kong,” International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 231–252, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. K. Leung, C. Y. Chen, B. H. Lue, and S. T. Hsu, “Social support and family functioning on psychological symptoms in elderly Chinese,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 203–213, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Wang and S. Li, “The effects of intergenerational support on the changes in cognitive functioning of the rural elderly in China,” Asia-Pacific Population Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 75–90, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Litwin and S. Shiovitz-Ezra, “Network type and mortality risk in later life,” The Gerontologist, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 735–743, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. W. Rowe and R. L. Kahn, Successful Aging, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  10. D. W. Russell and C. E. Cutrona, “Social support, stress, and depressive symptoms among the elderly: test of a process model,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 190–201, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Sorkin, K. S. Rook, and J. L. Lu, “Loneliness, lack of emotional support, lack of companionship, and the likelihood of having a heart condition in an elderly sample,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 290–298, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. P. Gallant, G. D. Spitze, and T. R. Prohaska, “Help or hindrance? How family and friends influence chronic illness self-management among older adults,” Research on Aging, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 375–409, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Litwin, “Social networks and well-being: a comparison of older people in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 599–608, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. L. Chou and I. Chi, “Social support exchange among elderly Chinese people and their family members in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study,” International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 275–291, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. P. L. Lee, D. Ruan, and G. Lai, “Social structure and support networks in Beijing and Hong Kong,” Social Networks, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 249–274, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. A. Pruchno, M. Wilson-Genderson, and F. Cartwright, “A two-factor model of successful aging,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 671–679, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. L. Baker, The Social Work Dictionary, National Association of Social Workers, Silver Springer, Md, USA, 1987.
  18. H. S. Kim, D. K. Sherman, and S. E. Taylor, “Culture and social support,” American Psychologist, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 518–526, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. B. Cadzow and T. J. Servoss, “The association between perceived social support and health among patients at a free urban clinic,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 243–250, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. A. Depp and D. V. Jeste, “Definitions and predictors of successful aging: a comprehensive review of larger quantitative studies,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 6–20, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. M. L. Chong, S. H. Ng, J. Woo, and A. Y. H. Kwan, “Positive ageing: the views of middle-aged and older adults in Hong Kong,” Ageing and Society, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 243–265, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. A. Pang-White, “Reconstructing modern ethics: confucian care ethics,” Journal of Chinese Philosophy, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 210–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Le, J. Shen, and L. Du, The Development of Social Psychology in China, Tianjin People, Tianjin, China, 2004.
  24. S. H Ng, C. K. Cheung, A. M. L. Chong, J. Woo, A. Kwan, and S. Lai, “Aging well socially through engagement with life: adapting Rowe and Kahn’s model of auccessful aging to Chinese cultural context,” International Journal of Aging & Human Development. In press.
  25. R. E. Holtzman, G. W. Rebok, J. S. Saczynski, A. C. Kouzis, K. W. Doyle, and W. W. Eaton, “Social network characteristics and cognition in middle-aged and older adults,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. P278–P284, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Pinquart and S. Sörensen, “Influences of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life: a meta-analysis,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 187–224, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. G. B. Roberts, R. I. M. Dunbar, T. V. Pollet, and T. Kuppens, “Exploring variation in active network size: constraints and ego characteristics,” Social Networks, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 138–146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. H. Fung, L. L. Carstensen, and F. R. Lang, “Age-related patterns in social networks among European Americans and African Americans: implications for socioemotional selectivity across the life span,” International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 185–206, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Liang, N. M. Krause, and J. M. Bennett, “Social exchange and well-being: is giving better than receiving?” Psychology and Aging, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 511–523, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. P. Reinhardt, K. Boerner, and A. Horowitz, “Good to have but not to use: differential impact of perceived and received support on well-being,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 117–129, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. E. Taylor, W. T. Welch, H. S. Kim, and D. K. Sherman, “Cultural differences in the impact of social support on psychological and biological stress responses,” Psychological Science, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 831–837, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Pallant, SPSS Survival Manual, Open University Press, Berkshire, NY, USA, 2007.
  33. L. K. Muthen and B. O. Muthen, Mplus User’s Guide, Muthen & Muthen, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2006.
  34. Census and Statistic Department, Thematic Report: Older Persons, Census and Statistic Department, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, 2006.
  35. A. A. G. C. Jonker, H. C. Comijs, K. C. P. M. Knipscheer, and D. J. H. Deeg, “The role of coping resources on change in well-being during persistent health decline,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1063–1082, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. L. Carstensen, J. A. Mikels, and M. Mather, “Aging and the intersection of cognition, motivation, and emotion,” in Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, J. E. Birren and K. W. Schaie, Eds., pp. 343–362, Academic, Burlington, Mass, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  37. F. R. Lang, U. M. Staudinger, and L. L. Carstensen, “Perspectives on socioemotional selectivity in late life: how personality and social context do (and do not) make a difference,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. P21–P30, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. T. Cheng and A. C. M. Chan, “Relationship with others and life satisfaction in later life: do gender and widowhood make a difference?” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. P46–P53, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Golden, R. M. Conroy, and B. A. Lawlor, “Social support network structure in older people: underlying dimensions and association with psychological and physical health,” Psychology, Health and Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 280–290, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus