Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 197325, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/197325
Research Article

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cup Anemometers Performance: The Stationary Harmonic Response

Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Aeronáuticos, Instituto Universitario de Microgravedad “Ignacio Da Riva” (IDR/UPM), Plaza del Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Received 29 July 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editors: D. Missirlis and G. Pascazio

Copyright © 2013 Santiago Pindado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Aminzadeh and S. Pindado, “How has Spain become a leader in the wind energy industry during the last decade? (An analysis of influential factors on the development of wind energy in Spain),” in Proceedings of the EWEA Annual Event, Brussels, Belgium, 2011.
  2. L. Kristensen, “Can a cup anemometer “underspeed”? A heretical question,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 163–172, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. V. Coquilla, J. Obermeier, and B. R. White, “Calibration procedures and uncertainty in wind power anemometers,” Wind Engineering, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 303–316, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Albers and H. Klug, “Open field cup anemometry,” DEWI Magazine, vol. 19, pp. 53–58, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Albers, H. Klug, and D. Westermann, “Outdoor comparison of cup anemometers,” DEWI Magazin, vol. 17, pp. 5–15, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Lang and E. McKeogh, “LIDAR and SODAR measurements of wind speed and direction in upland terrain for wind energy purposes,” Remote Sensing, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1871–1901, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, “Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement,” Wind Energy, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 993–1004, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. R. Robinson, “On a New Anemometer,” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1836–1869 ), vol. 4, pp. 566–572, 1847. View at Google Scholar
  9. International Electrotechnical Commision, International Standard IEC-61400-12-1. Wind Turbines. Part 12-1: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines. First Edition, 2005–12, International Electrotechnical Commision, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.
  10. R. V. Coquilla and J. Obermeier, “Calibration speed range for rotating anemometers used in wind energy applications,” in Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, pp. 2–7, January 2008. View at Scopus
  11. R. V. Coquilla, A. Havner, J. Obermeier, and M. Sturgeon, “Verification testing of Sonic anemometer wind speed measurements for wind energy applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 American Wind Energy Association Annual Conference (AWEA WINDPOWER '10), pp. 1–14, 2010.
  12. L. J. Fritschen, “A sensitive cup-type anemometer,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 6, pp. 695–698, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Sanuki and S. Kimura, “Some aerodynamic aspects deduced from the start and stop experiment of three- and four-cup anemometer,” Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, vol. 5, pp. 695–698, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. F. Marvin, “A rational theory of the cup anemometer,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 60, pp. 43–56, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. J. Brevoort and U. T. Joyner, “Experimental investigation of the Robinson-type cup anemometer,” NACA TN-513, 1935. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. F. Marvin, “Recent advances in anemometry,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 62, pp. 115–120, 1934. View at Google Scholar
  17. C. F. Marvin, “Anemometer tests,” Monthly Weather Review, pp. 58–63, 1900. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Charnock and F. E. Pierce, “New housing for the sensitive cup-contact anemometer, Mk. 1,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 36, no. 7, p. 329, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. A. Sheppard, “An improved design of cup anemometer,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 218–221, 1940. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. L. Deacon, “Reply to two types of sensitive recording cup anemometers,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 25, no. 8, p. 283, 1948. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. G. Crawford, “A simple form of sensitive electric contact cup anemometer,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 36–37, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Scrase and P. Sheppard, “The errors of cup anemometers in fluctuating winds,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 160–161, 1944. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. L. Deacon, “The over-estimation error of cup anemometers in fluctuating winds,” Journal of Scientific Instruments, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 231–234, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Kristensen, The Cup Anemometer and Other Exciting Instruments. Risø-R-615 (EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 1993.
  25. MEASNET, Cup Anemometer Calibration Procedure, Version 1 (September 1997, Updated 24/11/2008), MEASNET, Madrid, Spain, 1997.
  26. MEASNET, Anemometer Calibration Procedure, Version 2 (October 2009), MEASNET, Madrid, Spain, 2009.
  27. ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Determining the Performance of a Cup Anemometer or Propeller Anemometer (ASTM D, 5096-02), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa, USA, 2002.
  28. M. C.-E. Brazier, “Sur la variation des indications des anémomètres Robinson et Richard en fonction de l’inclinaison du vent,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, vol. 170, pp. 610–612, 1920. View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Pindado, E. Vega, A. Martínez, E. Meseguer, S. Franchini, and I. P. Sarasola, “Analysis of calibration results from cup and propeller anemometers. Influence on wind turbine Annual Energy Production (AEP) calculations,” Wind Energy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 119–132, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Kondo, G. I. Naito, and Y. Fujinawa, “Response of cup anemometer in turbulence,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 49, pp. 63–74, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Ramachandran, “A theoretical study of cup and vane anemometers,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 95, no. 403, pp. 163–180, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. C.-E. Brazier, “Sur la comparabilité des anémomètres,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, vol. 172, pp. 843–845, 1921. View at Google Scholar
  33. O. Schrenk, “Über die trägheitsfehler des Schalenkreuz-anemometers bei schwankender Windstärke,” Zeitschrift Fur Technische Physik, vol. 10, pp. 57–66, 1929. View at Google Scholar
  34. H. W. Baynton, “Errors in wind run estimates from rotational anemometers,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1127–1130, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. E. Busch and L. Kristensen, “Cup anemometer overspeeding,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 15, pp. 1328–1332, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  36. P. Frenzen, “Fast response cup anemometers for atmospheric turbulence research,” in Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Turbulence and Diffusion, pp. 112–115, 1988.
  37. E. I. Kaganov and A. M. Yaglom, “Errors in wind-speed measurements by rotation anemometers,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 15–34, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. C. Wyngaard, “Cup, propeller, vane, and sonic anemometers in turbulence research,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 13, pp. 399–423, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. A. Coppin, “An examination of cup anemometer overspeeding,” Meteorologische Rundschau, vol. 35, pp. 1–11, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. C. Wyngaard, J. T. Bauman, and R. A. Lynch, “Cup anemometer dynamics,” in Flow: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, vol. 1, pp. 701–708, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  41. L. Kristensen, “Cup anemometer behavior in turbulent environments,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. S. Hunter, “The accuracy of cup anemometer calibration with particular regard to testing wind turbines,” Wind Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 32–43, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J.-Å. Dahlberg, J. Gustavsson, G. Ronsten, T. F. Pedersen, U. S. Paulsen, and D. Westermann, Development of A Standardised Cup Anemometer Suited to Wind Energy Applications-(ClAsscup), vol. 9, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 2001.
  44. S. Pindado, J. Pérez, and S. Avila-Sanchez, “On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 6198–6217, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. S. Pindado, A. Sanz, and A. Wery, “Deviation of cup and propeller anemometer calibration results with air density,” Energies, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 683–701, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Pindado, A. Barrero-Gil, and A. Sanz, “Cup anemometers’Loss of performance due to ageing processes, and its effect on Annual Energy Production (AEP) estimates,” Energies, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1664–1685, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  47. J.-Å. Dahlberg, T. F. Pedersen, and P. Busche, ACCUWIND -Methods for Classification of Cup Anemometers. Risø-R-1555(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 2006.
  48. S. Pindado, I. Pérez, and M. Aguado, “Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 24, no. 6, Article ID 065802, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  49. Y. P. Solov'ev, A. I. Korovushkin, and Y. N. Toloknov, “Characteristics of a cup anemometer and a procedure of measuring the wind velocity,” Physical Oceanography, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 173–186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. F. Pedersen, Development of A Classification System for Cup Anemometers-CLASSCUP. Risø-R-1348(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 2003.