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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 298015, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Long-Term Evaluation of Patients Undergoing Genitoplasty due to Disorders of Sex Development: Results from a 14-Year Follow-Up

1Department of Urology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyanzheng Street, Chongqing 400038, China
2Department of Pathology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China

Received 12 September 2013; Accepted 6 November 2013

Academic Editors: S. Bertelloni and R. L. Davis

Copyright © 2013 Heng Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To summarize the experience in treating patients with genitoplasty due to disorders of sex development in China. Methods. The operative procedures, gender of rearing, surgical outcome, and psychosocial and family adjustments of 262 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results. At initial diagnosis, the mean age was years (range: 2–38 years). There were 96 children, 133 adolescents, and 33 adults. Follow-up was done every 6 months. Patients with female sex assignment had no urinary incontinence or voiding difficulty. Five patients underwent the second surgery (3%); vaginal dilation was performed in 35 patients with postoperative vaginal stenosis; 12 patients (7.4%) were unsatisfactory with the outcome. For patients with male sex assignment, the median length of penis was 2.2 cm in prepubertal patients, 4.2 cm in pubertal patients, and 5.0 cm in adults; 39 patients developed postvoid dribbling (39%); 21 patients underwent a second surgery (21%); urethral dilation was done in 28 patients (28%) due to urethral stricture; 38 patients were unsatisfactory with the outcome (38%). In addition, 136 patients (83%) with female sex assignment and 54 (54%) with male sex assignment had favorable psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions. Patients with male sex assignment have more surgical complications and difficulties in psychosocial adjustment as compared to those with female sex assignment.