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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 370151, 6 pages
Research Article

Improved Tissue Culture Conditions for Engineered Skeletal Muscle Sheets

Department of Basic Sciences, New York University, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA

Received 29 December 2012; Accepted 24 January 2013

Academic Editors: L. Guimarães-Ferreira, H. Nicastro, J. Wilson, and N. E. Zanchi

Copyright © 2013 Sara Hinds et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The potential clinical utility of engineered muscle is currently restricted by limited in vitro capacity of expanded muscle precursor cells to fuse and form mature myofibers. The purpose of this study was to use isotropic skeletal muscle sheets to explore the impact of (1) fibroblast coculture and (2) fibroblast-conditioned media (fCM) on in vitro myogenesis. Muscle sheets were prepared by seeding varying ratios of skeletal myoblasts and fibroblasts on a biomimetic substrate and culturing the resulting tissue in either control media or fCM. Muscle sheets were prepared from two cell subpopulations, (1) C2C12 and NOR-10 and (2) primary neonatal rat skeletal muscle cells (nSKM). In C2C12/Nor-10 muscle sheets fCM conferred a myogenic advantage early in culture; at D1 a statistically significant 3.12 ± 0.8-fold increase in myofiber density was observed with fCM. A high purity satellite cell population was collected from an initially mixed population of nSKMs via cell sorting for positive α7-integrin expression. On D6, tissue sheets with low fibroblast concentrations (0 & 10%) cultured in fCM had increased average myofiber density (4.8 ± 0.2 myofibers/field) compared to tissue sheets with high fibroblast concentrations (50%) cultured in control media (1.0 ± 0.1 myofibers/field). Additionally, fCM promoted longer, thicker myofibers with a mature phenotype.