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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 426492, 7 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

1Environmental Science Division, National Institute for Nuclear Research, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, MEX, Mexico
2Autonomous University of Mexico State, Unidad San Cayetano, 50294 Tlachaloya, MEX, Mexico
3Technology Institute of Toluca, Apartado Postal 890, 52149 Metepec, MEX, Mexico

Received 10 April 2013; Accepted 26 May 2013

Academic Editors: A. J. Aller, A. A. El-Sayed, A. A. Menegário, and C. Pistos

Copyright © 2013 Graciela Zarazúa-Ortega et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg) > Ca (7315 mg/Kg) > K (3842 mg/Kg) > Ti (387 mg/Kg) > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg) > Sr (71 mg/Kg) > Pb (59 mg/Kg) > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg) > Cr (24 mg/Kg) > Rb (13 mg/Kg) > Ni (10 mg/Kg). Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.