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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 589641, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/589641
Review Article

A New Insight to Bone Turnover: Role of -3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

1Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix Verdú”, Biomedical Research Center, Health Sciences Technological Park, University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18071 Granada, Spain
2Departament of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus de Cartuja s/n, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

Received 13 August 2013; Accepted 24 September 2013

Academic Editors: E. Kirk, T. A. Mori, and P. G. Vashi

Copyright © 2013 Naroa Kajarabille et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Evidence has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health and turnover. Objectives. This review summarizes findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies and the effects of LC PUFA on bone metabolism, as well as the relationship with the oxidative stress, the inflammatory process, and obesity. Results. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFA can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents, and reduce bone loss. However, the cellular mechanisms of action of the LCPUFA are complex and involve modulation of fatty acid metabolites such as prostaglandins, resolvins and protectins, several signaling pathways, cytokines, and growth factors, although in certain aspects there is still some controversy. LCPUFA affect receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ (RANK), a receptor found on the osteoclast, causing bone resorption, which controls osteoclast formation. Conclusions. Since fatty acids are an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species, free radicals alter the process of bone turnover; however, although there are clinical evidences linking bone metabolism and dietary lipids, more clinical trials are necessary to prove whether ω-3 PUFA supplementation plays a major role in bone health.