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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 617170, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Cytokine Response of Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells Stimulated with Proinflammatory Factors Depends on Differentiation Stage

1Centre for Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Division of Cardiology, University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, 4204 Golnik, Slovenia
3Applied Cachexia Research, Department of Cardiology, Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany
4Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska Cesta 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Received 21 December 2012; Accepted 18 January 2013

Academic Editors: L. Guimarães-Ferreira, H. Nicastro, J. Wilson, and N. E. Zanchi

Copyright © 2013 Matej Podbregar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Myoblast proliferation and myotube formation are critical early events in skeletal muscle regeneration. The attending inflammation and cytokine signaling are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Secretion of muscle-derived cytokines upon exposure to inflammatory factors may depend on the differentiation stage of regenerating muscle cells. Cultured human myoblasts and myotubes were exposed to 24-hour treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a major muscle-derived cytokine, and interleukin 1 (IL-1), an important regulator of inflammatory response, was measured 24 hours after termination of TNF-α or LPS treatment. Myoblasts pretreated with TNF-α or LPS displayed robustly increased IL-6 secretion during the 24-hour period after removal of treatments, while IL-1 secretion remained unaltered. IL-6 secretion was also increased in myotubes, but the response was less pronounced compared with myoblasts. In contrast to myoblasts, IL-1 secretion was markedly stimulated in LPS-pretreated myotubes. We demonstrate that preceding exposure to inflammatory factors stimulates a prolonged upregulation of muscle-derived IL-6 and/or IL-1 in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Our findings also indicate that cytokine response to inflammatory factors in regenerating skeletal muscle partially depends on the differentiation stage of myogenic cells.