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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 618495, 6 pages
Research Article

Integrated Electrokinetics-Adsorption Remediation of Saline-Sodic Soils: Effects of Voltage Gradient and Contaminant Concentration on Soil Electrical Conductivity

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Dammam, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia

Received 6 August 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editors: K. C. Cheung and C. García

Copyright © 2013 Mohammed Hussain Essa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique which couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic clay soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil electrical conductivity. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used for the experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model, optimize, and interpret the results obtained using Design-Expert version 8 platform. The total number of experiments conducted was 15 with voltage gradient, polarity reversal rate, and initial contaminant concentration as variables. The main target response discussed in this paper is the soil electrical conductivity due to its importance in electrokinetic remediation process. Responses obtained were fitted to quadratic models whose ranges from 84.66% to 99.19% with insignificant lack of fit in each case. Among the investigated factors, voltage gradient and initial contaminant concentration were found to be the most significant influential factors.