The Scientific World Journal / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke

Table 1

Studies which investigated deficits of the iUL following stroke.

Study = Sn/HcLesioned hemisphere L/RBaseline assessmentMean age* Sn/Hc Hand dominance Sn/HcStandardised outcome measureResult

Studies that used standardised assessments ( )
Jung et al. [2]72/2038/34Acute 55.5/not reportedRight/not reportedManual Function TestImprovement of the iUL plateaued at 1 month with recovery incomplete ( ). Shoulder function less affected and recovered faster when compared to hand function.
Noskin et al. [1]3012/18Acute61.5 Left , right /normative dataDynamometer, 9HPT9HPT performance below normative data at each time point ( , and −2.3). Grip strength unaffected. Initial impairment of the iUL correlated to contralateral deficit ( ).
De Groot-Driessen et al. [11]57/4224/33Sub-acute52.3/52.1 Left , right /left , right Finger tapping speed from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test Battery, the Barthel Index, Frenchay Activities Index, Sickness Impact ProfileSpeed of finger tapping was impaired up to 8 weeks after stroke when normative speeds were reached ( ).
Laufer et al. [4]9/105/4Sub-acute63.3/62.6Right/rightJHFT, 9HPTReduced speed ( ).
Morris and Van Wijck [12]56/5052/54Sub-acute67.9/67.8 Left , right /left , right Action Research Arm Test, 9HPT, Modified Barthel IndexBaseline assessment of iUL was below normative data (no value). Improvement in timed dexterity following bilateral intervention up to 6 weeks.
Sunderland et al. [7] (Sunderland [19])30/3415/15Sub-acute62.5/65Left , right /rightJHFT, Williams Doors Test, Apraxia Assessment, Line Cancellation, Judgement of Line Orientation, Token Test Parts I and V, DynamometerReduced speed on dexterity assessment ( ) and impaired grip strength ( ).
Brasil-Neto and De Lima [13]25/2511/14Chronic58.24/58.6 Right/rightMoving Touch Pressure Test, Box and Block Test, DynamometerMotor impairment ( ), decreased sensory discrimination ( ), and impaired grip strength ( ).
Chestnut and Haaland [5]52/6231/21Chronic63.6/64.6 Right/rightWilliams Doors Test, Timed Manual Performance TestMotor deficits resulting in functional impairment ( to ).
Desrosiers et al. [6]43/4314/29Chronic71.8/71.8Right/rightBox and Block Test, Purdue Pegboard, Upper Extremity Performance Evaluation Test for the Elderly Fine and gross manual dexterity, motor coordination, global performance, and kinaesthesia impaired ( to ).
Jebsen et al. [9]27/30014/13Chronic53.65/not reportedRight/not reportedJHFTPerformance below normative data ( , to ).
Spaulding et al. [8]4922/27Not reported66left , right /normative dataJHFTPerformance below normative data ( ).
Wetter et al. [3] 58/6634/24Chronic64/64.5Right/rightJHFTImpaired motor performance ( ).

Studies that used standardised and nonstandardised assessments ( )
Jones et al. [18]8/203/5Acute50.1/54.1Right/rightSnellen Eye Chart, DynamometerImpaired movement, speed, and strength (no value).
Mori and Yamadori [20]10055/45Acute65.8 Right/normative dataMini-Mental State Exam, Line Cancellation Test, Line Bisection TestRight hemisphere stroke only demonstrated an instinctive grasp reaction ( ).
Baskett et al. [21]41/4020/20Sub-acute68.6/71.6Right/rightMotor Assessment ScaleRight hemisphere stroke only demonstrated sensory-motor deficit ( ).
Yelnik et al. [15]36/8618/18Sub-acute54/48 Right/right9HPTStroke group performed below control group for all tasks ( ).
McCrea et al. [10]20/1013/7Chronic60.9/61.0 Left , right /not reportedDynamometerStrength and speed of muscle contraction affected ( ).
Nowak et al. [17]16/88/8Sub-acute54.5/56 Right/rightMedical Research Council Motor Strength Scale, Modified Rankin Score, Action Research Arm Test, National Institute of Health Stroke ScaleMovement timing, accuracy, and efficiency affected ( to ).
Quaney et al. [22]10/146/4Chronic55.5/53.1Right/rightPinch Gauge, Box to Block TestImpaired grip force ( ).

Studies that only used nonstandardised assessments ( )
Lin et al. [23]26/2415/11Sub-acute63.4/62.3 Right/rightNonstandardisedTask constraints showed a significant effect on movement variables ( ).
Swinnen et al. [24]16/167/9Sub-acute56.3/56.6 Right/rightNonstandardisedDeficits in coordination ( to ).
Haaland and Harrington [25]43/3225/18Chronic63/66Right/rightNonstandardisedSpeed of the left hemisphere group was slower when target size increased ( ).
Kim et al. [26]10/205/5Chronic72.4/72.4 Right/rightNonstandardisedProlonged movement and dwell time ( to ).
Kwon et al. [27]34/3817/19Not reported55.3/55.3Right/rightNonstandardisedAccuracy ( to ) and timing deficits after left hemisphere stroke ( ).
Pohl and Winstein [28], (Pohl et al. [38])10/105/5, 10/10Chronic57.1/57.4Right/rightNonstandardisedIncreased movement time ( ).
Sugarman et al. [29]11/56/5Chronic66.05/67.4Right/rightNonstandardisedAbnormal pattern of movement, increased movement time, and segmented movement (no value reported).
Yarosh et al. [30] 7/74/3Chronic56.7/56.6 Left , right /left , right NonstandardisedImpaired speed, trajectory, and sequence of muscle activity ( ).

 *Average of the left and right hemisphere stroke cohorts.
Sn: stroke cohort.
Hc: healthy controls.
(9HPT): Nine Hole Peg Test.
(JHFT): Jebsen Hand Function Test.

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