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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 765434, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/765434
Review Article

Interspecies Communication and Periodontal Disease

1Department of Periodontics, Himachal Pradesh Government Dental College and Hospital (H.P.G.D.C.), Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171001, India
2Himachal Pradesh Government Dental College and Hospital (H.P.G.D.C.), Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171001, India

Received 4 August 2013; Accepted 11 September 2013

Academic Editors: S.-J. Ahn, F. Najar, and M. Rosentritt

Copyright © 2013 Ajay Mahajan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

More than 500 bacterial strains may be found in dental plaque. In the beginning, the emphasis was laid on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture to define their properties. However, now, it has been well established that in nature the bacteria exist as a member of polymicrobial community or consortium of interacting species. Interactions among human oral bacteria are integral to the development and maturation of the plaque. These interactions occur at several levels including physical contact, metabolic exchange, small-signal molecule-mediated communication, and exchange of genetic material. This high level of interspecies interaction benefits the microorganism by providing a broader habitat range, effective metabolism, increasing the resistance to host defence, and enhancing their virulence. This generally has a detrimental effect on the host and is attributed to many chronic infections which poses a therapeutic challenge.