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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 808731, 4 pages
Research Article

Cardiac Safety of Diclofenac at a Single Dose in Ram

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42075 Konya, Turkey
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dicle, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey
3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mehmet Akif Ersoy, 15030 Burdur, Turkey

Received 14 August 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editors: W. S. Aronow and H. Oguz

Copyright © 2013 Ayse Er et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently prescribed drug group in human and veterinary medicine. However, diclofenac, a traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, related to cardiotoxicity is reported, and blood cardiac damage markers may increase within the first hours after damage. The aim of the current research was to determine the effect of diclofenac on the blood cardiac damage markers. Single dose of diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg, IM) was injected to 6 rams. Blood samples were collected in before (0 hour, control) and 6 hours after injection. Specific (troponin I, and creatine kinase-MB) and nonspecific (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase) blood cardiac damage marker concentrations, routine biochemical (hepatic damage, renal damage, lipid metabolism, glucose, and phosphorus) parameters, and hemogram values were measured. Diclofenac increased ( ) specific (troponin I) and nonspecific cardiac (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase), and muscular (creatine kinase) damage markers and high density lipoprotein level, while it decreased ( ) low density lipoprotein level. Moreover, diclofenac decreased ( ) white blood cell counts and increased ( ) red blood cell counts. In conclusion, it may be stated that diclofenac shows slight cardiotoxicity, whereas it may show potent hepatic and muscular damage effects at an intramuscularly single dose in sheep. Thereby, repeated injections of diclofenac may be more harmful in sheep.