Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 925702, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/925702
Review Article

Efficacy of Memantine, Donepezil, or Their Association in Moderate-Severe Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review of Clinical Trials

1Centro Ricerche Cliniche, Telemedicina e Telefarmacia, Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2Unità Valutativa Alzheimer e Malattie Involutive Cerebrali, Azienda Ospedaliera Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, 80131 Napoli, Italy

Received 6 August 2013; Accepted 12 September 2013

Academic Editors: R. Cacabelos and D. R. Thal

Copyright © 2013 Ivana Molino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease Internationl, “World Alzheimer Report 2010: the global economic impact of dementia,” http://www.alz.org/documents/national/World_Alzheimer_Report_2010.pdf.
  2. EMEA Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, “Plenary meeting monthly report,” October 2005, European Medicines Agency, http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/press/pr/36234805en.pdf.
  3. G. T. Grossberg, V. Pejović, M. L. Miller, and S. M. Graham, “Memantine therapy of behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 164–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), “Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease,” NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 217, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London, UK, 2011, (Review of NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 111). View at Google Scholar
  5. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and Federal Joint Committee, “Responder analyses on memantine in Alzheimer’s disease,” Executive Summary of Rapid Report A 10-06, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG), 2011. View at Google Scholar
  6. B. Winblad, R. W. Jones, Y. Wirth, A. Stöffler, and H. J. Möbius, “Memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. J. Thomas and G. T. Grossberg, “Memantine: a review of studies into its safety and efficacy in treating Alzheimer's disease and other dementias,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 4, pp. 367–377, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. S. Doody, J. K. Dunn, C. M. Clark et al., “Chronic donepezil treatment is associated with slowed cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 295–300, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Clegg, J. Bryant, T. Nicholson et al., “Clinical and cost-effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine for Alzheimer's disease: a rapid and systematic review,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–137, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. A. Hansen, G. Gartlehner, A. P. Webb, L. C. Morgan, C. G. Moore, and D. E. Jonas, “Efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 211–225, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. D. Christensen, “Higher-dose (23 mg/dayay) donepezil formulation for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 110–116, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. L. Cummings, D. Geldmacher, M. Farlow, M. Sabbagh, D. Christensen, and P. Betz, “High-dose donepezil (23 mg/day) for the treatment of moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease: drug profile and clinical guidelines,” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 294–301, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Ferris, J. Cummings, D. Christensen et al., “Effects of donepezil 23 mg on Severe Impairment Battery domains in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease: evaluating the impact of baseline severity,” Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 5, no. 1, article 12, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Atri, J. L. Molinuevo, O. Lemming, Y. Wirth, I. Pulte, and D. Wilkinson, “Memantine in patients with Alzheimer's disease receiving donepezil: new analyses of efficacy and safety for combination therapy,” Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 5, no. 1, article 6, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. Gauthier and J. L. Molinuevo, “Benefits of combined cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine treatment in moderate-severe Alzheimer's disease,” Alzheimer's & Dementia, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 326–331, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. Wells, B. Shea, D. O’Connell et al., The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Nonrandomized Studies in Metaanalysis, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada, 2011, http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
  17. C. Fox, M. Crugel, I. Maidment et al., “Efficacy of memantine for agitation in Alzheimer's dementia: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e35185, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Förstl, S. S. Stamouli, W. Janetzky, A. Galanopoulos, C. Karageorgiou, and M. Tzanakaki, “Memantine in everyday clinical practice: a comparison of studies in Germany and Greece,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 267–272, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Herrmann, J. Cappell, G. M. Eryavec, and K. L. Lancôtt, “Changes in nursing burden following memantine for agitation and aggression in long-term care residents with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: an open-label pilot study,” CNS Drugs, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 425–433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. B. Schulz, M. Rainer, H. Klünemann et al., “Sustained effects of once-daily memantine treatment on cognition and functional communication skills in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: results of a 16-week open-label trial,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 463–475, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Rainer, A. Wuschitz, C. Jagsch, C. Erb, J.-J. Chirikdjian, and H. A. M. Mucke, “Memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: an observational post-marketing study,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 1255–1259, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. K. Wilcock, C. G. Ballard, J. A. Cooper, and H. Loft, “Memantine for agitation/aggression and psychosis in moderately severe to severe Alzheimer's disease: a pooled analysis of 3 studies,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 341–348, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. M. Carrasco, L. Agüera, P. Gil, A. Moríñigo, and T. Leon, “Safety and effectiveness of donepezil on behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 333–340, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. R. Farlow, S. Salloway, P. N. Tariot et al., “Effectiveness and tolerability of high-dose (23 mg/d) versus standard-dose (10 mg/d) donepezil in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: a 24-week, randomized, double-blind study,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1234–1251, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Farlow, F. Veloso, M. Moline et al., “Safety and tolerability of donepezil 23 mg in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease,” BMC Neurology, vol. 11, article 57, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Schwam and Y. Xu, “Cognition and function in Alzheimer's disease: Identifying the transitions from moderate to severe disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 309–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Homma, Y. Imai, H. Tago et al., “Donepezil treatment of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese population: results from a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 399–407, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. E. Black, R. Doody, H. Li et al., “Donepezil preserves cognition and global function in patients with severe Alzheimer disease,” Neurology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 459–469, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Howard, R. McShane, J. Lindesay et al., “Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 10, pp. 893–903, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. S. Doody, D. S. Geldmacher, M. R. Farlow, Y. Sun, M. Moline, and J. Mackell, “Efficacy and safety of donepezil 23 mg versus donepezil 10 mg for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease: a subgroup analysis in patients already taking or not taking concomitant memantine,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 33, no. 2-3, pp. 164–173, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. R. Farlow, M. L. Miller, and V. Pejovic, “Treatment options in Alzheimer's disease: maximizing benefit, managing expectations,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 408–422, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. K. Wallin, N. Andreasen, S. Eriksson et al., “Donepezil in Alzheimer's disease: what to expect after 3 years of treatment in a routine clinical setting,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 150–160, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. D. Rountree, W. Chan, V. N. Pavlik, E. J. Darby, S. Siddiqui, and R. S. Doody, “Persistent treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine slows clinical progression of Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 1, no. 2, article 7, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  34. D. Galasko, F. Schmitt, R. Thomas, S. Jin, D. Bennett, and S. Ferris, “Detailed assessment of activities of daily living in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 446–453, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Winblad and N. Poritis, “Memantine in severe dementia: results of the MBest study (benefit and efficacy in severely demented patients during treatment with memantine),” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 135–146, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. Wilkinson and H. F. Andersen, “Analysis of the effect of memantine in reducing the worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 138–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Wilkinson, R. Schindler, E. Schwam et al., “Effectiveness of donepezil in reducing clinical worsening in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 244–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. S. Doody, P. N. Tariot, E. Pfeiffer, J. T. Olin, and S. M. Graham, “Meta-analysis of six-month memantine trials in Alzheimer's disease,” Alzheimer's and Dementia, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. A. Schmitt, C. H. van Dyck, C. H. Wichems, and J. T. Olin, “Cognitive response to memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer disease patients already receiving donepezil: an exploratory reanalysis,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. O. L. Lopez, J. T. Becker, A. S. Wahed et al., “Long-term effects of the concomitant use of memantine with cholinesterase inhibition in Alzheimer disease,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 600–607, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Bond, G. Rogers, J. Peters et al., “The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (review of TA111): a systematic review and economic model,” NIHR HTA Programme Project Number 09/87/01, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, London, UK, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  42. L. E. Farrimond, E. Roberts, and R. McShane, “Memantine and cholinesterase inhibitor combination therapy for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review,” BMJ Open, vol. 2, no. 3, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Atri, L. W. Shaughnessy, J. J. Locascio, and J. H. Growdon, “Long-term course and effectiveness of combination therapy in Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 209–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Atri, S. D. Rountree, O. L. Lopez, and R. S. Doody, “Validity, significance, strengths, limitations, and evidentiary value of real-world clinical data for combination therapy in Alzheimer's disease: comparison of efficacy and effectiveness studies,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 10, no. 1–4, pp. 170–174, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. W. Zhu and M. Sano, “Economic considerations in the management of Alzheimer's disease,” Clinical interventions in aging, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 143–154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus