Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 957680, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/957680
Clinical Study

MDCT in the Differentiation of Adrenal Masses: Comparison between Different Scan Delays for the Evaluation of Intralesional Washout

D.I.M. Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Aldo Moro University of Bari Medical School, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

Received 20 January 2013; Accepted 15 February 2013

Academic Editors: C. Corsi, F. Frauscher, and C. Kappas

Copyright © 2013 Giuseppe Angelelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Korobkin, I. R. Francis, R. T. Kloos, and N. R. Dunnick, “The incidental adrenal mass,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1037–1054, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. H. Song, F. S. Chaudhry, and W. W. Mayo-Smith, “The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 190, no. 5, pp. 1163–1168, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Taffel, S. Haji-Momenian, P. Nikolaidis, and F. H. Miller, “Adrenal imaging: a comprehensive review,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 219–243, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. J. H. Song and W. W. Mayo-Smith, “Incidentally discovered adrenal mass,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 361–368, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. W. L. Boland, “Adrenal imaging: from addison to algorithms,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 511–528, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. W. Boland, “Adrenal imaging,” Abdominal Imaging, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 472–482, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. Y. K. Kim, B. K. Park, C. K. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “Adenoma characterization: adrenal protocol with dual-energy CT,” Radiology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. J. Lee, P. F. Hahn, N. Papanicolaou et al., “Benign and malignant adrenal masses: CT distinction with attenuation coefficients, size, and observer analysis,” Radiology, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 415–418, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Korobkin, F. J. Brodeur, G. G. Yutzy et al., “Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT attenuation values,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 531–536, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. W. L. Boland, M. J. Lee, G. S. Gazelle, E. F. Halpern, M. M. J. McNicholas, and P. R. Mueller, “Characterization of adrenal masses using unenhanced CT: an analysis of the CT literature,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 201–204, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. L. Choyke, “ACR appropriateness criteria on incidentally discovered adrenal mass,” Journal of the American College of Radiology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 498–504, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Korobkin, F. J. Brodeur, I. R. Francis, L. E. Quint, N. R. Dunnick, and F. Londy, “CT time-attenuation washout curves of adrenal adenomas and nonadenomas,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 747–752, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. H. Szolar and F. H. Kammerhuber, “Adrenal adenomas and nonadenomas: assessment of washout at delayed contrast-enhanced CT,” Radiology, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 369–375, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. M. Caoili, M. Korobkin, I. R. Francis, R. H. Cohan, and N. R. Dunnick, “Delayed enhanced CT of lipid-poor adrenal adenomas,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 175, no. 5, pp. 1411–1415, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Korobkin, “CT characterization of adrenal masses: the time has come,” Radiology, vol. 217, no. 3, pp. 629–632, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. S. Pena, G. W. L. Boland, P. F. Hahn, M. J. Lee, and P. R. Mueller, “Characterization of indeterminate (lipid-poor) adrenal masses: use of washout characteristics at contrast-enhanced CT,” Radiology, vol. 217, no. 3, pp. 798–802, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. M. Caoili, M. Korobkin, I. R. Francis et al., “Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced delayed enhanced CT,” Radiology, vol. 222, no. 3, pp. 629–633, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. A. Blake, M. K. Kalra, A. T. Sweeney et al., “Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses: multi-detector row CT protocol with 10-minute delay,” Radiology, vol. 238, no. 2, pp. 578–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Kamiyama, Y. Fukukura, T. Yoneyama, K. Takumi, and M. Nakajo, “Combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol,” Radiology, vol. 250, no. 2, pp. 474–481, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. Sangwaiya, G. W. L. Boland, C. G. Cronin, M. A. Blake, E. F. Halpern, and P. F. Hahn, “Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT—10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort,” Radiology, vol. 256, no. 2, pp. 504–510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Foti, N. Faccioli, W. Mantovani, G. Malleo, R. Manfredi, and R. P. Mucelli, “Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of quadriphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography in distinguishing adenomas from nonadenomas,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1742–1750, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. T. Johnson, K. M. Horton, and E. K. Fishman, “Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector Ct: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfall,” Radiographics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1333–1351, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. F. Young, “The incidentally discovered adrenal mass,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 6, pp. 601–610, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. C. Dalrymple, J. R. Leyerdecker, and M. Oliphant, Problem Solving in Abdominal Imaging, Elsevier Health Sciences Division, 2009.
  25. B. Mackay, A. El-Naggar, and N. G. Ordonez, “Ultrastructure of adrenal cortical carcinoma,” Ultrastructural Pathology, vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 181–190, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. P. Krestin, W. Steinbrich, and G. Friedmann, “Adrenal masses: evaluation with fast gradient-echo MR imaging and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic studies,” Radiology, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 675–680, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. W. Mayo-Smith, G. W. Boland, R. B. Noto, and M. J. Lee, “From the RSNA refresher courses: state-of-the-art adrenal imaging,” Radiographics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 995–1012, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Stadler, W. Schima, G. Prager et al., “CT density measurements for characterization of adrenal tumors ex vivo: variability among three CT scanners,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 671–675, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. W. Park, T. N. Kim, J. H. Yoon et al., “The washout rate on the delayed CT image as a diagnostic tool for adrenal adenoma verified by pathology: a multicenter study,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1397–1402, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. B. K. Park, B. Kim, K. Ko, S. Y. Jeong, and G. Y. Kwon, “Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation,” European Radiology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–647, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus