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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 969281, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Comparison of the Framingham, PROCAM, and DAD Equations in HIV-Infected Persons

1Postgraduate Studies Program, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Brazil
2Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Goiás, Brazil
3Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Brazil
4National Institute for Health Technology Assessement, Brazil
5School of Nutrition, Federal University of Goiás, Brazil
6Postgraduate Studies Program in Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Brazil

Received 31 July 2013; Accepted 28 August 2013

Academic Editors: S. C. Fuchs, M. B. Moreira, and B. Oyeledun

Copyright © 2013 Max Weyler Nery et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aims to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the agreement between the Framingham, Framingham with aggravating factors, PROCAM, and DAD equations in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient centre in Brazil. 294 patients older than 19 years were enrolled. Estimates of 10-year cardiovascular risk were calculated. The agreement between the CVD risk equations was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The participants' mean age was 36.8 years (SD = 10.3), 76.9% were men, and 66.3% were on antiretroviral therapy. 47.8% of the participants had abdominal obesity, 23.1% were current smokers, 20.0% had hypertension, and 2.0% had diabetes. At least one lipid abnormality was detected in 72.8%, and a low HDL-C level was the most common. The majority were classified as having low risk for CV events. The percentage of patients at high risk ranged from 0.4 to 5.7. The PROCAM score placed the lowest proportion of the patients into a high-risk group, and the Framingham equation with aggravating factors placed the highest proportion of patients into the high-risk group. Data concerning the comparability of different tools are informative for estimating the risk of CVD, but accuracy of the outcome predictions should also be considered.