Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-B Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Effects of andrographolide on iNOS expression in TNF--stimulated VSMCs. (a) Photomicrograph showing the primary cultured rat aortic VSMCs (magnification ×100). (b) The VSMCs were treated with PBS (resting group) or pretreated with andrographolide (20 and 50 μM) or an equal volume of DMSO (solvent control) for 20 min, and TNF- (10 ng/mL) was subsequently added for 24 h. The iNOS protein level was evaluated as described in Section 2. compared with the resting group; compared with the TNF- group. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ().