Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-B Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Effects of andrographolide on IB degradation and p65 activation in TNF--stimulated VSMCs. The VSMCs were treated with PBS (resting group) or pretreated with andrographolide (20 and 50 μM) or an equal volume of DMSO (solvent control) for 20 min, and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) was subsequently added for 30 min. (a) IB degradation and (b) p65 phosphorylation were evaluated as described in Section 2. and compared with the resting group; compared with the TNF- group. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ().