Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-B Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Regulatory effects of various signal inhibitors on p65 activation and Akt and JNK phosphorylation in TNF--stimulated VSMCs. The VSMCs were treated with PBS (resting group) or pretreated with LY294002 (10 μM), SP600125 (10 μM), or an equal volume of DMSO (solvent control) for 20 min, and TNF- (10 ng/mL) was subsequently added for 10 min ((b) and (c)) or 30 min (a). (a) p65 phosphorylation, (b) Akt phosphorylation, and (c) JNK phosphorylation were evaluated as described in Section 2. and compared with the resting group; compared with the TNF- group. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ().