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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 186508, 13 pages
Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Cardiovascular Development Related Genes in Stem Cells Isolated from Deciduous Pulp and Adipose Tissue

1Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Hygieia Innovation Sdn. Bhd (852106-M), Lot 1G-2G, Lanai Complex No. 2, Persiaran Seri Perdana, Precint 10, 62250 Putrajaya, Malaysia
3Departments of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 3 July 2014; Revised 20 October 2014; Accepted 3 November 2014; Published 7 December 2014

Academic Editor: Yunfeng Lin

Copyright © 2014 Zhang Xin Loo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and adipose stem cells (ASC) were suggested as alternative cell choice for cardiac regeneration. However, the true functionability of these cells toward cardiac regeneration is yet to be discovered. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the innate biological properties of these cell sources toward cardiac regeneration. Both cells exhibited indistinguishable MSCs characteristics. Human stem cell transcription factor arrays were used to screen expression levels in SHED and ASC. Upregulated expression of transcription factor (TF) genes was detected in both sources. An almost equal percentage of > 2-fold changes were observed. These TF genes fall under several cardiovascular categories with higher expressions which were observed in growth and development of blood vessel, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis categories. Further induction into cardiomyocyte revealed ASC to express more significantly cardiomyocyte specific markers compared to SHED during the differentiation course evidenced by morphology and gene expression profile. Despite this, spontaneous cellular beating was not detected in both cell lines. Taken together, our data suggest that despite being defined as MSCs, both ASC and SHED behave differently when they were cultured in a same cardiomyocytes culture condition. Hence, vigorous characterization is needed before introducing any cell for treating targeted diseases.