Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 190320, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/190320
Research Article

Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, QC, Montreal, Canada H3G 1M8

Received 12 June 2014; Accepted 11 August 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Edward Mikuli

Copyright © 2014 S. Abdessameud et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. J. Press, K. S. V. Santhanam, M. J. Miri, A. V. Bailey, and G. A. Takacs, Introduction to Hydrogen Technology, 2009.
  2. I. P. Jain, P. Jain, and A. Jain, “Novel hydrogen storage materials: a review of lightweight complex hydridespuye,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 503, no. 2, pp. 303–339, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S.-I. Orimo, Y. Nakamori, J. R. Eliseo, A. Züttel, and C. M. Jensen, “Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 4111–4132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Sakintuna, F. Lamari-Darkrim, and M. Hirscher, “Metal hydride materials for solid hydrogen storage: a review,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1121–1140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Chen and M. Zhu, “Recent progress in hydrogen storage,” Materials Today, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 36–43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. George and S. K. Saxena, “Structural stability of metal hydrides, alanates and borohydrides of alkali and alkali-earth elements: a review,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 5454–5470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Barkhordarian, T. Klassen, M. Dornheim, and R. Bormann, “Unexpected kinetic effect of MgB2 in reactive hydride composites containing complex borohydrides,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 440, no. 1-2, pp. L18–L21, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Dornheim, S. Doppiu, G. Barkhordarian et al., “Hydrogen storage in magnesium-based hydrides and hydride composites,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 841–846, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Zaluska, L. Zaluski, and J. O. Ström-Olsen, “Nanocrystalline magnesium for hydrogen storage,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 288, no. 1-2, pp. 217–225, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. J. Vajo, S. L. Skeith, and F. Mertens, “Reversible storage of hydrogen in destabilized LiBH4,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 3719–3722, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Bouhadda, N. Fenineche, and Y. Boudouma, “Hydrogen storage: lattice dynamics of orthorhombic NaMgH3,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 406, no. 4, pp. 1000–1003, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Pottmaier, E. R. Pinatel, J. G. Vitillo et al., “Structure and thermodynamic properties of the NaMgH3 perovskite: a comprehensive study,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2317–2326, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Bouamrane, C. de Brauer, J.-P. Soulié, J. M. Létoffé, and J. P. Bastide, “Standard enthalpies of formation of sodium-magnesium hydride and hydridofluorides NaMgH3, NaMgH2F and NaMgF2H,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 326, no. 1-2, pp. 37–41, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Rönnebro, D. Noréus, K. Kadir, A. Reiser, and B. Bogdanovic, “Investigation of the perovskite related structures of NaMgH3, NaMgF3 and Na3AlH6,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 299, no. 1-2, pp. 101–106, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Ikeda, S. Kato, Y. Shinzato et al., “Thermodynamical stability and electronic structure of a perovskite-type hydride, NaMgH3,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 446-447, pp. 162–165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Wu, W. Zhou, T. J. Udovic, J. J. Rush, and T. Yildirim, “Crystal chemistry of perovskite-type hydride NaMgH3: implications for hydrogen storage,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 2335–2342, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Komiya, N. Morisaku, R. Rong et al., “Synthesis and decomposition of perovskite-type hydrides, MMgH3 (M = Na, K, Rb),” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 453, no. 1-2, pp. 157–160, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Ikeda, Y. Kogure, Y. Nakamori, and S. Orimo, “Reversible hydriding and dehydriding reactions of perovskite-type hydride NaMgH3,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 319–322, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Wang, J. Zhang, J. W. Liu, L. Z. Ouyang, and M. Zhu, “Catalysis and hydrolysis properties of perovskite hydride NaMgH3,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 580, no. 1, pp. S197–S201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. T. Shanes, R. L. Corey, R. C. Bowman Jr. et al., “NMR studies of the hydrogen storage compound NaMgH3,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 42, pp. 18414–18419, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O. Dolotko, N. Paulson, and V. K. Pecharsky, “Thermochemical transformations in 2MNH2-3MgH2 systems (M = Li or Na),” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 4562–4568, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. A. Sheppard, M. Paskevicius, and C. E. Buckley, “Hydrogen desorption from the NaNH2-MgH2 system,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 16, pp. 8407–8413, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Sartori, X. Qi, N. Eigen et al., “A search for new Mg- and K-containing alanates for hydrogen storage,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 4582–4586, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Tang, S. M. Opalka, B. L. Laube, F.-J. Wu, J. R. Strickler, and D. L. Anton, “Hydrogen storage properties of Na-Li-Mg-Al-H complex hydrides,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 446-447, pp. 228–231, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Zidan, K. L. Shanahan, D. L. Anton, A. R. Jurgensen, and J. Pittman, “Development and characterization of novel complex hydrides synthesized via Molten state processing,” in Proceedings of the MRS Online Proceedings Library, vol. 885, 2005.
  26. S. Garroni, C. Milanese, A. Girella et al., “Sorption properties of NaBH4/MH2 (M = Mg, Ti) powder systems,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 5434–5441, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Pottmaier, C. Pistidda, E. Groppo et al., “Dehydrogenation reactions of 2NaBH4 + MgH2 system,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, no. 13, pp. 7891–7896, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Bale, A. Pelton, and W. Thompson, “FactSage 6.4, Factsage thermochemical software and databases,” http://www.crct.polymtl.ca/.
  29. A. San-Martin and F. D. Manchester, “The H-Mg (Hydrogen-Magnesium) system,” Journal of Phase Equilibria, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 431–437, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Zeng, T. Klassen, W. Oelerich, and R. Bormann, “Critical assessment and thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-H system,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 989–1004, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. U. Wolf, K. Bohmhammel, and G. Wolf, “A simple adiabatic low-temperature calorimeter based on a helium refrigerator system,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 310, no. 1-2, pp. 37–42, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Bogdanović, K. Bohmhammel, B. Christ et al., “Thermodynamic investigation of the magnesium-hydrogen system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 84–92, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Belkbir, E. Joly, and N. Gerard, “Comparative study of the formation-decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in LaNi5 and magnesium reversible hydrides,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Shapovalov, N. Serdyuk, and A. Semik, “Magnesium-hydrogen and aluminum-hydrogen phase diagrams,” Dopovidi Akademii Nauk Ukrains’koi RSR Seriya A: Fiziko-Matematichni ta Tekhnichni Nauki, vol. 6, pp. 99–101, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. F. Stampfer Jr., C. E. Holley Jr., and J. F. Suttle, “The magnesium-hydrogen system,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 82, no. 14, pp. 3504–3508, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. I. Shapovalov, A. P. Semik, and A. G. Timchenko, “On the solubility of hydrogen in liquid magnesium,” Metally, vol. 3, pp. 25–28, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Shefer, P. Fischer, W. Hälg et al., “New structure results for hydrides and deuterides of the hydrogen storage material Mg2Ni,” Journal of the Less Common Metals, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Selvam, B. Viswanathan, C. S. Swamy, and V. Srinivasan, “Studies on the thermal characteristics of hydrides of Mg, Mg2Ni, Mg2Cu and Mg2Ni1-xMx (M = Fe, Co, Cu or Zn; 0<x<1) alloys,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 87–94, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Noréus and P.-E. Werner, “The structure of the low temperature phase Mg2NiH4(LT),” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Hirata, “Pressure DSC study of the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of some intermetallic compounds Mg2Ni,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 855–859, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Krozer and B. Kasemo, “Hydrogen uptake by Pd-coated Mg: absorption-decomposition isotherms and uptake kinetics,” Journal of the Less Common Metals, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 323–342, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Koeneman and A. Metcalfe, “The solubility of hydrogen in magnesium,” ASM Transactions, vol. 51, pp. 1072–1082, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  43. F. H. Ellinger, C. E. Holley Jr., B. B. McInteer et al., “The preparation and some properties of magnesium hydride,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 2647–2648, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. J. Reilly and R. H. Wiswall Jr., “The reaction of hydrogen with alloys of magnesium and nickel and the formation of Mg2NiH4,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 2254–2256, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Buchner, O. Bernauer, and W. Straub, “Development of high temperature hydrides for vrhicular applications,” in Proceedings of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference, pp. 1677–1687, Zürich, Switzerland, 1978.
  46. K. J. Gross, P. Spatz, A. Züttel, and L. Schlapbach, “Mechanically milled Mg composites for hydrogen storage: the transition to a steady state composition,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 240, no. 1-2, pp. 206–213, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. Akiba, K. Nomura, S. Ono, and Y. Mizuno, “Pressure-composition isotherms of MgNiH2 alloys,” Journal of The Less-Common Metals, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. L43–L46, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. S. Pedersen, J. Kjøller, B. Larsen, and B. Vigeholm, “Magnesium for hydrogen storage,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. F. Chernega, Y. Y. Gotvyanskii, and T. N. Prisyazhnyuk, “Hydrogen permeability, diffusion, and solubility of hydrogen in magnesium-aluminum alloys,” Liteinoe Proizvodstvo, vol. 12, pp. 9–10, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  50. Y. C. Huang, T. Watanabe, and R. Komatsu, “Hydrogen in magnesium and its alloys,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Vacuum Metallurgy, pp. 176–179, 1974.
  51. E. Øvrelid, T. A. Engh, and D. Øymo, Light Metals, TMS, Warrendale, vol. PA, pp. 771–778, 1994.
  52. E. Øvrelid, G. B. Fl, T. Rosenqvist, P. Bakke, and T. A. Engh, “The effect of Sr addition on the hydrogen solubility and hydride formation in pure Mg and the alloy AZ91,” Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy, vol. 27, pp. 133–140, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  53. Z. D. Popovic and G. R. Piercy, “Measurement of the solubility of hydrogen in solid magnesium,” Metallurgical Transactions A, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1915–1917, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J.-P. Harvey and P. Chartrand, “Modeling the hydrogen solubility in liquid aluminum alloys,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 908–924, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. San-Martin and F. D. Manchester, “The H-Na (Hydrogen-Sodium) system,” Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 287–294, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Roy and D. N. Rodgers, “Characterization of a diffusion tube hydrogen detector in a dynamic sodium system,” Nuclear Technology, vol. 12, pp. 388–392, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Herold, “Contribution to the study of the alkaline hydride,” Ann. Chim. Set., vol. 12, pp. 537–575, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  58. E. F. Sollers and J. L. Crenshaw, “The dissociation pressures of sodium deuteride and sodium hydride,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 2724–2726, 1937. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. D. Williams, J. A. Grand, and R. R. Miller, “The solubility of sodium hydride in sodium,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 379–381, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. C. Addison, R. J. Pulham, and R. J. Roy, “19. Liquid metals. Part X. Solutions of hydrogen in liquid sodium,” Journal of the Chemical Society, pp. 116–121, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. W. McClure and G. D. Halsey Jr., “The solubility of hydrogen in liquid sodium,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 3542–3547, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. J. Newcombe and J. Thompson, “An electrochemical method for the determination of the solubility of hydrogen in liquid sodium,” Journal of Polarographic Society, vol. 14, p. 104, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  63. S. A. Meacham, E. F. Hill, and A. A. Gardus, The Solubility or Hydrogen in Sodium, vol. APDA-241, Atomic Power Development Associates, 1970.
  64. D. R. Vissers, J. T. Holmes, L. G. Bartholme, and P. A. Nelson, “A hydrogen activity meter for liquid sodium and its application to hydrogen solubility measurements,” Nuclear Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 235–244, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. O. A. Skuratov, O. N. Pavlov, V. l. Danilkin, and I. V. Volkov, “Dissociation pressure of molten stoichiometric alkali metal hydrides,” Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 1605–1608, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  66. W. Klostermeier and E. U. Franck, “Liquid mixture of sodium and sodium hydride at high pressures and temperatures,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 606–612, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. V. Prochazka and M. Nedved, “Chemistry of metal hydrides. VI. Mechanism of the formation of sodium hydride catalyzed by carbon monoxide,” Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, vol. 38, pp. 2850–2854, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  68. J. R. Gwyther and C. Whittingham, “The kinetics of hydrogen removal from liquid sodium,” in Material Behavior and Physical Chemistry in Liquid Metal Systems, pp. 335–343, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. G. F. Huttig and F. Brodkorb, “Chemistry of hydrogen. VI. Compounds of hydrogen with sodium,” Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, vol. 161, pp. 353–362, 1927. View at Google Scholar
  70. H. Hagen and A. Sieverts, “Sodium hydride. I. Preparation and density,” Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, vol. 185, pp. 239–253, 1930. View at Google Scholar
  71. E. Zintl and A. Harder, “Alkali hydrides,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie B, vol. 14, pp. 265–284, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  72. V. G. Kuznetsov and M. M. Shkrabkina, “X-ray diffraction study of NaH and KH at temperatures from 20 to 400°C,” Journal of Structural Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 532–537, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Qiu, S. M. Opalka, G. B. Olson, and D. L. Anton, “The Na-H system: from first-principles calculations to thermodynamic modeling,” International Journal of Materials Research, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 845–853, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. R. Gunn and L. G. Green, “The heats of formation at 25° of the crystalline hydrides and deuterides and aqueous hydroxides of lithium, sodium and potassium,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 80, no. 18, pp. 4782–4786, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. R. Gunn, “The heats of formation at 25° of the crystalline hydrides and aqueous hydroxides of rubidium and cesium,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1386–1390, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. E. Messer, L. G. Fasolino, and C. E. Thalmayer, “The heats of formation of lithium, sodium and potassium hydrides,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 4524–4526, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. H. Hagen and A. Sieverts, “Sodium hydride. II. Heat of formation,” Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, vol. 185, pp. 254–266, 1930. View at Google Scholar
  78. A. Herold, “Dissociation pressure of alkali hydrides,” Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 228, pp. 686–688, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  79. E. V. Sayre and J. J. Beaver, “Isotope effect in the vibrational frequency spectra and specific heats of sodium hydride and deuteride,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 584–594, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. B. Predel, “H-Na (hydrogen-sodium),” in Ga-Gd—Hf-Zr, O. Madelung, Ed., pp. 1–3, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. C. H. Mathewson, “Sodium-aluminum, sodium-magnesium, and sodium-zinc alloys,” Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, vol. 48, pp. 191–200, 1906. View at Google Scholar
  82. M. F. Lantratov, “Thermodynamic properties of liquid Na-Mg and K-Mg alloys,” Journal of Applied Chemistry of the USSR, vol. 46, pp. 2107–2110, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  83. W. Klemm and D. Kunze, “Systems of alkali and alkaline earth metals,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Alkali Metals, pp. 3–22, London, UK, 1967.
  84. A. D. Pelton, “The Mg-Na (Magnesium-Sodium) system,” Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 454–456, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Zhang, Q. Han, and Z.-K. Liu, “Thermodynamic modeling of the Al-Mg-Na system,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 419, no. 1-2, pp. 91–97, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. Ikeda, Y. Nakamori, and S. Orimo, “Formation ability of the perovskite-type structure in LixNa1-XMgH3 (x = 0, 0.5 and 1.0),” Acta Materialia, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 3453–3457, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. D. Banus, J. J. Mcsharry, and E. A. Sullivan, “The sodium-sodium hydride-hydrogen system at 500–600°,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 2007–2010, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. A. Sheppard, M. Paskevicius, and C. E. Buckley, “Thermodynamics of hydrogen desorption from NaMgH3 and its application as a solar heat storage medium,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 4298–4300, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. T. Dinsdale, “SGTE data for pure elements,” Calphad, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 317–425, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. M. W. Chase, Ed., NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NIST, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  91. A. D. Pelton, S. A. Degterov, G. Eriksson, C. Robelin, and Y. Dessureault, “The modified quasichemical model I—binary solutions,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 651–659, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Z.-Y. Qiao, X. Xing, M. Peng, and A. Mikula, “Thermodynamic criterion for judging the symmetry of ternary systems and criterion applications,” Journal of Phase Equilibria, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 502–507, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. K. Frisk, “A thermodynamic evaluation of the Cr-N, Fe-N, Mo-N and Cr-Mo-N systems,” Calphad, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 79–106, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. L. Post and J. J. Murray, “Mg2Ni hydride: in situ heat conduction calorimetry of the phase transition near 510–K,” Journal of The Less-Common Metals, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus