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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 219035, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/219035
Research Article

Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Laboratory of Fundamentals of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia
4Brain and Neuroscience Communities of Research, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 24 March 2014; Accepted 25 June 2014; Published 3 August 2014

Academic Editor: Roberto Rivelino

Copyright © 2014 Cheng Loong Ngan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w) and beeswax (1–3%, w/w) in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.