The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Effects of Lower Limb Length and Body Proportions on the Energy Cost of Overground Walking in Older Persons

Table 1

General characteristics of the study sample and results from the six-minute walk test ( ).

General characteristics
 Age, years (mean ± SD)69.1 ± 5.4
 Female sex, (%) 12 (19)
 Weight, kg (mean ± SD)72.3 ± 13.0
 Height, cm (mean ± SD)169.8 ± 7.7
 Lower limb length, cm (mean ± SD)87.7 ± 5.6
 Lower limb length to height ratio, % (mean ± SD)51.7 ± 1.9
Results from the six-minute walk test
 Distance walked, m (mean ± SD)424 ± 63
 Mean walking speed, m sec−1 (mean ± SD)1.2 ± 0.2
 Mean kinetic energy, joule (mean ± SD)51.6 ± 18.4
 Step number, (mean ± SD)310 ± 42
 Step cadence, sec−1 (mean ± SD)0.86 ± 0.12
 Step length, m (mean ± SD)1.38 ± 0.19
 Step number per meter, m−1 (mean ± SD)0.74 ± 0.10
 Resting metabolic rate, joule min−1 (mean ± SD)5,312 ± 958
 Gross energy expenditure throughout the test, joule (mean ± SD)129,362 ± 30,213
 Net energy expenditure throughout the test, joule (mean ± SD)97,489 ± 25,617
 Cost of locomotion, joule kg−1 sec−1 (mean ± SD)3.73 ± 0.64
 Cost of locomotion to kinetic energy ratio, kg−1 sec−1 (mean ± SD)79.9 * 10−3 ± 26.5 * 10−3