Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 384165, 4 pages
Research Article

Retrograde Positive Contrast Urethrocystography of the Fish Urogenital System

1Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, Polo Universitario dell’Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
2Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy

Received 3 July 2014; Accepted 5 August 2014; Published 12 August 2014

Academic Editor: Bernard Antonius Johannes Roelen

Copyright © 2014 Francesco Macrì et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The radiological differences between the urinary tract of  Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata, Tinca tinca, and Cyprinus carpio are shown. In fresh water teleosts the urinary bladder is sigmoid and a short urethra leads to the urinary pore. Genital and anal pores are present. In Sparus aurata the urinary bladder has a globoid shape. In Dicentrarchus labrax the urinary bladder is smaller and elongate. In both marine teleosts a single urogenital pore is visible. Positive contrast was used to survey the urogenital system and evaluate shape and size of the bladder, urethra, ureter, and gonadal ducts. Results demonstrate the morphological variability of the urinary bladder and the craniodorsal entry of the ureters into the bladder. It is envisaged that this work will provide baseline information for further imaging studies for investigating the urogenital morphology and can be applied to identify disorders in fishes. Furthermore, the main interest of this study is that it demonstrates the morphological variability of the lower urinary system that exists between different species of fishes.