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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 416752, 6 pages
Research Article

Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

1Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
4Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
5Faculty of Health, Shahr-e-kord University of Medical Sciences, Rahmatieh, P.O. Box 88155-383, Shahr-e-kord, Iran

Received 18 August 2013; Accepted 5 December 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editors: H. Kazemian, H. G. Rosatto, and M. Tejada

Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Mehdi Amin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.