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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 434802, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Biochemical Characterization of Early Osteoarthritis in the Ankle

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Hugstetter Street. 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany

Received 27 November 2013; Accepted 6 January 2014; Published 13 February 2014

Academic Editors: V. Kontogeorgakos and R. Pflugmacher

Copyright © 2014 Hagen Schmal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in early ankle osteoarthritis (OA) are still missing. Methods. 49 patients with a mean age of years undergoing an arthroscopy of the ankle with different stages of chronic OA were prospectively included in a clinical trial. Lavage fluids were analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, clinical parameters and scores (FFI, CFSS, and AOFAS) were evaluated and supplemented by the Kellgren Lawrence Score (KLS) and the ankle osteoarthritis scoring system (AOSS). Results. ICRS grading of cartilage damage, previous operations, and duration of complains were strong indicators for OA progress and showed correlations to age, clinical scores, validated KLS, and AOSS ( ). Systemic and intraarticular inflammatory parameters were low in all patients. Biochemically, aggrecan and BMP-7 positively indicated OA with statistically significant associations with duration of symptoms, FFI, AOFAS, and KLS ( ). In contrast, BMP-2 levels showed statistically significant negative correlations to aggrecan or BMP-7 concentrations, which is in line with the negative association with ICRS score and KLS and the positive correlation with FFI ( ). Conclusions. We were able to identify different key markers of OA in the ankle as aggrecan, BMP-7, and BMP-2, offering starting points for new ways in diagnostics and interventional strategies.