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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 450423, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/450423
Research Article

Emergence of Enteric Viruses in Production Chickens Is a Concern for Avian Health

1Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avendia Professor Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avendia Professor Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool CH64 7TE, UK

Received 26 August 2013; Accepted 31 October 2013; Published 22 January 2014

Academic Editors: A. Rak-Mardyła and N. Shirai

Copyright © 2014 Elena Mettifogo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including Brazil. Molecular detection of these viruses in Brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. This disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. Chicken astrovirus (CAstV), rotavirus, reovirus, chicken parvovirus (ChPV), fowl adenovirus of subgroup I (FAdV-1), and avian nephritis virus (ANV) were investigated using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which may play a role in enteric disease, was included. The viruses most frequently detected, either alone or in concomitance with other viruses, were IBV, ANV, rotavirus, and CAstV followed by parvovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus. This study demonstrates the diversity of viruses in Brazilian chicken flocks presenting enteric problems characterized by diarrhea, growth retard, loss weight, and mortality, which reflects the multicausal etiology of this disease.