Table 2: The elastic modulus inversion results using various feedback methods (unit: GPa).

NumberMaterialDesign valueDPIP-ACOGeneralized least squaresNeural networks

1Dam concrete2027.23028
2A22023.32826 (A)
3A41211.217
4B281011.622 (B)
5B41216.418
6C357713 (C)
7A1151622.526 (A)
8F200.62
9F20-10.31
10F260.52
11F270.57
12F320.243
13F500.21
14D2.753.43.85
15f200.94
16f331.05
17f350.8
18Gravity pier2029.630
19Foundation reinforcement zone1027.215