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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 507076, 10 pages
Research Article

Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Simulator for Robotic Surgery

1Division of Women and Baby, Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, Room F05-126, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
2Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Skåne University Hospital, Tornavagen 10, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
3Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Tornavagen 10, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
4Lund Clinical Skills Center, Skåne University Hospital, Barngatan 2 B, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
5Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Received 11 August 2013; Accepted 13 November 2013; Published 30 January 2014

Academic Editors: P. Chien and T. Levy

Copyright © 2014 Henk W. R. Schreuder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery. Methods. A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants () were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises. Results. Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were “time to complete” and “economy of motion” (). The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.