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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 526105, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/526105
Research Article

RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

1Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Pakistan
2Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, GC University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
4College of Pharmacy, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, AlKharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
5Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 3 June 2014; Accepted 11 June 2014; Published 5 August 2014

Academic Editor: Stamatios Kalligeros

Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be , , and % for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were and %, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.