Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 537080, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/537080
Research Article

Volatile Organic Silicon Compounds in Biogases: Development of Sampling and Analytical Methods for Total Silicon Quantification by ICP-OES

Laboratoire de Génie Civil et d’Ingénierie Environnementale LGCIE, Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, France

Received 27 July 2014; Accepted 5 September 2014; Published 15 October 2014

Academic Editor: Bin Cao

Copyright © 2014 Claire Chottier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Graiver, K. W. Farminer, and R. Narayan, “A Review of the Fate and Effects of Silicones in the Environment,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 129–136, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. Parker, J. Shi, N. Fendinger, H. Monteith, and G. Chandra, “Pilot plant study to assess the fate of two volatile methyl siloxanes compounds during municipal wastewater treatment,” Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 172–181, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Dewil, L. Appels, and J. Baeyens, “Energy use of biogas hampered by the presence of siloxanes,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 47, no. 13-14, pp. 1711–1722, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Schweigkofler and R. Niessner, “Determination of siloxanes and VOC in landfill gas and sewage gas by canister sampling and GC-MS/AES analysis,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 3680–3685, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Ducom, B. Laubie, A. Ohannessian, C. Chottier, P. Germain, and V. Chatain, “Hydrolysis of polydimethylsiloxane fluids in controlled aqueous solutions,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 813–820, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Stoddart, M. Zhu, J. Staines, E. Rothery, and R. Lewicki, “Experience with halogenated hydrocarbons removal from landfill gas,” in Proceedings of the Sardinia 1999, 7th Sardinia International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1999.
  7. A. Ohannessian, V. Desjardin, V. Chatain, and P. Germain, “Volatile organic silicon compounds: the most undesirable contaminants in biogases,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1775–1781, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Chatain, A. Ohannessian, and P. Germain, “Valorisation du biogaz et traitements épuratoires,” in La Méthanisation, R. Moletta, Ed., vol. 15, chapter 15, pp. 459–478, Lavoisier Tec & Doc, Paris, France, 2nd edition, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Prabucki, W. Doczyck, and D. Asmus, “Removal of organic silicon compounds from landfill and sewer gas,” in Proceedings of the 8th Sardinia International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Proceedings Sardinia, Cagliary, Italy, 2001.
  10. M. Schweigkofler and R. Niessner, “Removal of siloxanes in biogases,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 183–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ajhar, M. Travesset, S. Yüce, and T. Melin, “Siloxane removal from landfill and digester gas—a technology overview,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2913–2923, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Hagmann, E. Hesse, P. Hentschel, and T. Bauer, “Purification of biogas—removal of volatiles silicones,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Waste Water Management and Landfill Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 641–644, 2001.
  13. S. Rasi, J. Läntelä, A. Veijanen, and J. Rintala, “Landfill gas upgrading with countercurrent water wash,” Waste Management, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1528–1534, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Broto-Puig, “Siloxane analysis in landfill biogas: study on sample capture method and identification—quantification by HRGC-MS,” Microphilox Life Project, 2008, http://www.microphilox.com/pdf/FBrotoIQSMICROPHILOX.pdf.
  15. M. Crest, C. Chottier, P. Camacho, A. Ohannessian, V. Chatain, and P. Germain, “Comparison of two analytical methods to quantify volatile organo silicon compounds (VOSiCs) contents in landfill biogas,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium (Sardinia '09), Cagliari, Italy, 2009.
  16. P. Germain, N. Dumont, and V. Chatain, “Quantification of total silicon in biogas,” WO Patent 129007, 2006.
  17. M. Hagmann, E. Heimbrand, and P. P. Hentschel, “Determination of siloxanes in biogas from landfills and sewage treatment plants,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: Proceedings Sardinia, Cagliari, Italy, 1999.
  18. Y. Takuwa, T. Matsumoto, K. Oshita, M. Takaoka, S. Morisawa, and N. Takeda, “Characterization of trace constituents in landfill gas and a comparison of sites in Asia,” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 305–311, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Air Toxics, Siloxanes by GC-MS: Introducing the Air Toxics, vol. 7, Air Methods Ltd, West Midlands, UK, 1st edition, 2002.
  20. A. Narros, M. I. Del Peso, G. Mele, M. Vinot, E. Fernandez, and M. E. Rodriguez, “Determination of siloxanes in landfill gas by adsorption on Tenax tubes and TD-GC-MS,” in Proceeding of the 12th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium (Sardinia '09), Cagliary, Italy, 2009.
  21. J. J. Kennan, L. L. M. Breen, T. H. Lane, and R. B. Taylor, “Methods for detecting silicones in biological matrixes,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 15, pp. 3054–3060, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Sánchez, J.-L. Todolí, C.-P. Lienemann, and J.-M. Mermet, “Effect of the silicon chemical form on the emission intensity in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for xylene matrices,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 391–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Chao, “Direct measurement and speciation of volatile organosilicons in landfill gas by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection,” in Proceedingsof the 25th SWANA's Annual Landfill Gas Symposium, Monterey, Calif, USA, 2002.