The Scientific World Journal / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester as a Protective Agent against Nephrotoxicity and/or Oxidative Kidney Damage: A Detailed Systematic Review

Table 1

In vivo studies showing several types of action, animals recruited, doses applied, and reported outcomes of CAPE in some disease models of several organs except kidney.

The type of studyOrganAnimals usedThe dose appliedType of actionReported outcomesReference

Melanoma tumor modelSkinC57BL/6 mice10, 20, 30 mg/kg/dayIncreases ROSAntimelanoma efficacy[96]

Colorectal adenocarcinoma modelColonBALB/c mice10 mg/kg, i.v.Depletes GSH and inhibits NFκB activitySensitizes CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma to ionizing radiation[97]

Short-term myocardial I/RHeartAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg, i.p.A combination of decreased XO activity and direct antioxidant effectCardioprotective effect[98]

Long-term myocardial I/RHeartAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg, i.p.Reduces apoptosis and serum CK and AST activities, attenuates NO production, elevates myocardial SODPretreatment with CAPE provides cardioprotective effects[99]

Cisplatin-induced oxidative damageLiverAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg/day, i.p.Strengthens the antioxidant defence system by reducing ROS and increasing antioxidant enzyme activitiesPrevents cisplatin-induced oxidative changes in liver[100]

Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizureBrainSwiss albino female mice10  mol/kg, i.p.Decreases MDA and NO levels by its antioxidative actionProtects the brain from PTZ-induced oxidative damage[101]

Ototoxicity induced by cisplatinBloodAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg/day, i.p.Decrease in XO activityAmeliorates hearing deterioration[102]

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisSpinal cord and brainInbred female Wistar rats25  mol/kg/day, i.p.Anti-inflammatory activityProtects the CNS from oxidative damage[103]

Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosisLungSprague Dawley rats10  mol/kg/day, i.p.Antioxidant and free radical scavenger activitiesProtects lungs via decreased hydroxyproline, NO, MDA and MPO levels, increased SOD and CAT activities[104]

Testicular torsion/detorsionTestisMale albino Wistar rats10  mol/kg, i.p.Antioxidant and antineutrophil effectsAttenuates testicular injury histologically and biochemically (decreased MPO and TBARS levels, increased GSH-Px activity)[105]

Caustic esophageal strictureEsophagusAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg/day, s.c.Supports wound healing by anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant propertiesPrevents caustic esophageal strictures[106]

Testicular torsion/detorsionTestisMale albino Wistar rats10  mol/kg, i.p.Increases testicular NO levels in ipsilateral, but not in contralateral testesProtects testes from torsion/detorsion injuries[107]

Spinal cord I/R injurySpinal cordNew Zealand white rabbits10  mol/kg, i.p.Scavenges free radicals/provides better microcirculatory environment during reperfusion via preventing endothelial cell lysis by proteases from activated PMNLReduces I/R damage in transient spinal cord ischemia and provide better neurologic outcome[23]

Intestinal reperfusion injuryIntestineAlbino Wistar rats10  mol/kg i.p.Eliminates oxygen radicals and inhibits PMNL infiltration Prevents reperfusion injuries in intestinal tissue[24]

AST: aspartate transaminase CAT: catalase, CAPE: caffeic acid phenethyl ester, CK: creatine kinase, CNS: central nervous system, GSH: glutathione, GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase, i.p.: intraperitoneal, I/R: ischemia/reperfusion, i.v.: intravenous, MDA: malondialdehyde, MPO: myeloperoxidase, NFκB: nuclear factor kappa B, NO: nitric oxide, PMNL: polymorphonuclear leukocytes, p.o.: per oral, PTZ: pentylenetetrazol, ROS: reactive oxygen species, s.c.: subcutanaeous, SOD: superoxide dismutase, TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactant substances XO: xanthine oxidase.

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