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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 569057, 12 pages
Research Article

Online Measurement of Soil Organic Carbon as Correlated with Wheat Normalised Difference Vegetation Index in a Vertisol Field

1Vocational School of Technical Science, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey
2Agricultural Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey
3Environmental Science and Technology Department, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Received 14 April 2014; Revised 10 June 2014; Accepted 12 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Hayati Filik

Copyright © 2014 Yücel Tekin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study explores the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for online measurement of soil organic carbon (SOC). It also attempts to explore correlations and similarities between the spatial distribution of SOC and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) of a wheat crop. The online measurement was carried out in a clay vertisol field covering 10 ha of area in Karacabey, Bursa, Turkey. Kappa statistics were carried out between different SOC and NDVI data to investigate potential similarities. Calibration model of SOC in full cross-validationresulted in a good accuracy ( , root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.17%, and ratio of prediction deviation (RPD) = 1.81). The validation of the calibration model using laboratory spectra provided comparatively better prediction accuracy ( , RMSEP = 0.15%, and RPD = 1.78), as compared to the online measured spectra ( , RMSEP = 0.20%, and RPD = 1.41). Although visual similarity was clear, low similarity indicated by a low Kappa value of 0.259 was observed between the online vis-NIR predicted full-point (based on all points measured in the field, e.g., 6486 points) map of SOC and NDVI map.