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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 580385, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/580385
Research Article

Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 m CMOS Process

1Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Republic of Korea

Received 27 September 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013; Published 22 January 2014

Academic Editors: A. García-Zambrana, A. Jugessur, and A. Srivastava

Copyright © 2014 Jubayer Jalil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.