Table 1: Animal studies effect of probiotics on bone.

Probiotic strainDurationPossible effect on boneSubjectMethodAuthor and year

Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 4 weeks(i) Bone volume fraction
(ii) Bone mineral density
(iii) Bone mineral content
(iv) Trabecular number and thickness of distal femur
(v) Trabecular space
(vi) Vertebral trabecular bone volume
Healthy male mice Micro-CTMcCabe et al. 2013 [16]
Bifidobacterium  longum, fermented broccoli 12 weeks Number of TRAP-positive osteoclastsMale Wistar ratsHistologic measurementsTomofuji et al. 2012 [17]
Bifidobacterium Longum (ATCC 15707) 28 days(i) Bone weight, thickness, and length/NS
(ii) Strength of fracture/NS
(iii) Ca, Mg bone content
Male Wistar rats(i) Stainless-steel caliper
(ii) Three-point Texture Analyzer
(iii) Plasma emission spectrophotometer
Rodrigues et al. 2012 [23]
Lactobacillus paracasei  (NTU 101) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NTU102) 8 weeks(i) Femur BMD/NS
(ii) Tb.Th/NS
(iii) Tb.N
(iv) Tb.sp
Ovariectomized mice(i) CT system
(ii) SkyScan
Chiang and Pan 2011 [18]
Active Lactobacillus casei 393 6 weeks(i) Femoral length/NS
(ii) Dry weight of femur
(iii) Ca and P in dry femur
(iv) BMD and BMC
(v) Bone strength
Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats(i) Vernier caliper
(ii) Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission
(iii) DEXA
(iv) Three-point Texture Analyzer
Kim et al. 2009 [21]
Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis 6 weeks(i) Medial and lateral wall thickness of tibiotarsi
(ii) Medullary canal diameter
Broiler chicks(i) Dial caliper
(ii) Subtracting the thickness of the medial and lateral walls from the diameter at the diaphysis
Mutuş et al. 2006 [22]
Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16H 14 weeks(i) BMD and BMC
(ii) Femur weight
Male rats induced-osteoporosis agingDEXANarva et al. 2004 [24]

NS: not significant.
CT: computed tomography.
TRAP: tartrate resistant acid phosphatase.
Ca: calcium.
Mg: magnesium.
BMD: bone mass density.
Tb.Th: trabecular thickness.
Tb.N: trabecular number.
Tb.sp: trabecular separation.
BMC: bone mineral content.
DEXA: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.