Table 2: Possible mechanisms of probiotics on bone.

Possible mechanisms

Produce SCFA PH mineral absorption via their solubilisation bone loss
Produce phytase enzyme release minerals depressed by phytate availability of minerals bone loss
Hydrolysis glycoside bonds of estrogenic food availability of minerals
Produce IPP and VPP formation Ang II from Ang I bone resorption
Produce antioxidant status osteoclast differentiation bone loss
Reduces intestinal inflammation proinflammatory cytokine levels epithelial cell inflammation calcium uptake bone volume fraction

SCFA: short chain fatty acid.
IPP: isoleucyl-prolyl-proline.
VPP: valyl-prolyl-proline.
ANG II: Angiotensin II.
ANG I: Angiotensin II.