Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 642891, 14 pages
Research Article

Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis

1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Malaysia Genome Institute, Jalan Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Received 29 December 2013; Accepted 10 February 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editors: M. Fernández and M. Singh

Copyright © 2014 Theresa Wan Chen Yap et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.