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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 680356, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/680356
Research Article

Micropropagation of Bioencapsulation and Ultrastructural Features of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro

1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran 15719-14911, Iran

Received 26 February 2014; Revised 22 May 2014; Accepted 29 May 2014; Published 19 June 2014

Academic Editor: Alan K. T. Lau

Copyright © 2014 Sadegh Mohajer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To explore the potential of in vitro rapid regeneration, three varieties (Golpaygan-181, Orumieh-1763, and Gorgan-1601) of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) were evaluated. For the first time, an encapsulation protocol was established from somatic embryogenic callus in torpedo and cotyledonary stages to create artificial seeds. Callus derived from different concentrations of Kinetin (0–2.0 mg L−1) and Indole-3-acetic acid (0–2.0 mg L−1) was coated with sodium alginate and subsequently cultured either in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or in soil substrate. Adventitious shoots from synthetic beads developed into rooting in full and half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Prolonged water conservation of black and red soils (1 : 1) had the highest rate of survival plantlets in the acclimatization process. Diverse resistance techniques in Onobrychis viciifolia were evaluated when the plants were subjected to water deficiency. Higher frequency of epicuticular waxes was observed in in vivo leaves compared to in vitro leaves. Jagged trichomes nonsecreting glands covered by spines were only observed in the lower leaf side. Ultimately, stomata indices were 0.127 (abaxial), 0.188 (adaxial) in in vivo and 0.121 (abaxial), 0.201 (adaxial) in in vitro leaves.