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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 713490, 15 pages
Research Article

A Particle Swarm Optimization Variant with an Inner Variable Learning Strategy

1Science and Technology on Information Systems Engineering Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073, China
2Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6R 2V4
3Warsaw School of Information Technology, Newelska, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland
4Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Central South University, Changsha , Hunan 410004, China

Received 27 August 2013; Accepted 10 October 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editors: Y. Deng and Y. Zhao

Copyright © 2014 Guohua Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Although Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has demonstrated competitive performance in solving global optimization problems, it exhibits some limitations when dealing with optimization problems with high dimensionality and complex landscape. In this paper, we integrate some problem-oriented knowledge into the design of a certain PSO variant. The resulting novel PSO algorithm with an inner variable learning strategy (PSO-IVL) is particularly efficient for optimizing functions with symmetric variables. Symmetric variables of the optimized function have to satisfy a certain quantitative relation. Based on this knowledge, the inner variable learning (IVL) strategy helps the particle to inspect the relation among its inner variables, determine the exemplar variable for all other variables, and then make each variable learn from the exemplar variable in terms of their quantitative relations. In addition, we design a new trap detection and jumping out strategy to help particles escape from local optima. The trap detection operation is employed at the level of individual particles whereas the trap jumping out strategy is adaptive in its nature. Experimental simulations completed for some representative optimization functions demonstrate the excellent performance of PSO-IVL. The effectiveness of the PSO-IVL stresses a usefulness of augmenting evolutionary algorithms by problem-oriented domain knowledge.