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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 729852, 8 pages
Research Article

Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sebha, Sebha, Libya
3Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
4Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
5Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
6Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia

Received 12 March 2014; Revised 15 May 2014; Accepted 24 May 2014; Published 12 June 2014

Academic Editor: Kunio Ohmiya

Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Idris Alshelmani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC.