Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 741034, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/741034
Research Article

Optimization of Bi2O3, TiO2, and Sb2O3 Doped ZnO-Based Low-Voltage Varistor Ceramic to Maximize Nonlinear Electrical Properties

1Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 12 May 2014; Accepted 31 July 2014; Published 27 August 2014

Academic Editor: Zhijian Peng

Copyright © 2014 Masoumeh Dorraj et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Matsuoka, “Non- ohmic properties of zinc oxide ceramics,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 736–746, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. M. Levinson and H. R. Philipp, “Zinc oxide varistor—A review,” The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 639–646, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. R. W. Abdullah, A. Zakaria, and M. S. M. Ghazali, “Synthesis mechanism of low-voltage praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide varistor ceramics prepared through modified citrate gel coating,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 5278–5289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. A. Alim, M. A. Seitz, and R. W. Hirthe, “Complex plane analysis of trapping phenomena in zinc oxide based varistor grain boundaries,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 2337–2345, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Anas, R. V. Mangalaraja, M. Poothayal, S. K. Shukla, and S. Ananthakumar, “Direct synthesis of varistor-grade doped nanocrystalline ZnO and its densification through a step-sintering technique,” Acta Materialia, vol. 55, no. 17, pp. 5792–5801, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Peiteado, J. F. Fernández, and A. C. Caballero, “Processing strategies to control grain growth in ZnO based varistors,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2999–3003, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Peiteado, J. F. Fernández, and A. C. Caballero, “Varistors based in the ZnO-Bi2O3 system: microstructure control and properties,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 27, no. 13–15, pp. 3867–3872, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Daneu, N. Novak Gramc, A. Rečnik, M. Maček Kržmanc, and S. Bernik, “Shock-sintering of low-voltage ZnO-based varistor ceramics with Bi4Ti3O12 additions,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 335–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Bernik and N. Daneu, “Characteristics of ZnO-based varistor ceramics doped with Al2O3,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 3161–3170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Bernik, N. Daneu, and A. Rečnik, “Inversion boundary induced grain growth in TiO2 or Sb2O3 doped ZnO-based varistor ceramics,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 24, no. 15-16, pp. 3703–3708, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Li, J. Peng, S. Guo, and L. Zhang, “Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of the sintering process of preparation calcia partially stabilized zirconia (CaO-PSZ) using natural baddeleyite,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 574, pp. 504–511, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Shah and K. Pathak, “Development and statistical optimization of solid lipid nanoparticles of simvastatin by using 23 full-factorial design,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 489–496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Malakar and A. K. Nayak, “Formulation and statistical optimization of multiple-unit ibuprofen-loaded buoyant system using 23-factorial design,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1834–1846, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. R. Guru, A. K. Nayak, and R. K. Sahu, “Oil-entrapped sterculia gum-alginate buoyant systems of aceclofenac: development and in vitro evaluation,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 104, pp. 268–275, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. K. Nayak and D. Pal, “Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 784–793, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Malakar, A. K. Nayak, and D. Pal, “Development of cloxacillin loaded multiple-unit alginate-based floating system by emulsion-gelation method,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 138–147, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Bernik, “Microstructural and electrical characteristics of ZnO based varistor ceramics with varying TiO2/Bi2O3 ratio,” Advances in Science and Technology, pp. 151–158, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  18. Y. Abdollahi, A. Zakaria, R. S. Aziz et al., “Optimizing Bi2O3 and TiO2 to achieve the maximum non-linear electrical property of ZnO low voltage varistor,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 137, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Sun and C. Zhang, “Evaluation of elliptical finned-tube heat exchanger performance using CFD and response surface methodology,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 75, pp. 45–53, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Zuorro, M. Fidaleo, and R. Lavecchia, “Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis of photodegradation of sulfonated diazo dye Reactive Green 19 by UV/H2O2 process,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 127, pp. 28–35, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Yolmeh, M. B. Habibi Najafi, and R. Farhoosh, “Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM),” Food Chemistry, vol. 155, pp. 319–324, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. H. Myers and C. M. Anderson-Cook, Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  23. M. Khayet, C. Cojocaru, and M. Essalhi, “Artificial neural network modeling and response surface methodology of desalination by reverse osmosis,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 368, no. 1-2, pp. 202–214, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. R. Cox and C. A. Donnelly, Principles of Applied Statistics, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  25. D. Freedman, R. Pisani, and R. Purves, Statistics, WW Norton, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  26. Y. Yuan, Y. Gao, L. Mao, and J. Zhao, “Optimisation of conditions for the preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions using response surface methodology,” Food Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 1300–1306, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Zarei, A. Niaei, D. Salari, and A. Khataee, “Application of response surface methodology for optimization of peroxi-coagulation of textile dye solution using carbon nanotube-PTFE cathode,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 173, no. 1–3, pp. 544–551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Romaguera, Y. Leyet, F. Guerrero, L. Aguilera, J. Pérez, and J. D. L. S. Guerra, “Influence of Bi3+ cation on microstructure and electrical properties of the ZnO,” Revista Cubana de Química, vol. 21, no. 3, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  29. L. Cheng, G. Li, K. Yuan, L. Meng, and L. Zheng, “Improvement in nonlinear properties and electrical stability of ZnO varistors with B2O3 additives by nano-coating method,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1004–1010, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Feng, Z. Peng, X. Fu et al., “Effect of TiO2 doping on microstructural and electrical properties of ZnO-Pr6O11-based varistor ceramics,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 497, no. 1-2, pp. 304–307, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. L. Souza, J. W. Gomes, P. R. Bueno et al., “Effect of the addition of ZnO seeds on the electrical proprieties of ZnO-based varistors,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 512–516, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Watanabe, Y. Tokoro, Y. Sato, and S. Yoshikado, “Effects of Sb, Zr, and Y addition on the electrical characteristics of Bi-based ZnO varistors,” Journal of Physics, vol. 339, no. 1, Article ID 012007, 2012. View at Google Scholar