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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 745148, 8 pages
Research Article

Effects of NAA and BAP, Double-Layered Media, and Light Distance on In Vitro Regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Lotus), an Aquatic Edible Plant

1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), Herbarium Unit, Department of Landscape Architecture (KAED), International Islamic University Malaysia, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Faculty of Applied Science, MARA University of Technology, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Agriculture Sciences, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia

Received 10 February 2014; Revised 25 March 2014; Accepted 28 March 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Sami Aifa

Copyright © 2014 Noraini Mahmad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.